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40-BIT KEY  look up translate image
key with a length of 40 bits, once the upper limit of what could be exported from the U.S. and other countries without a license. Considered very insecure. See key size for a discussion of this and other lengths.
ACTIVE ATTACK  look up translate image
An attack in which the attacker must create or modify information. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Agency of the U. S. Department of Defense that promotes exploratory research in areas that carry long term promise for military applications. ARPA funded the major packet switching experiments in the United States that led to the Internet, particularly the ARPANET.
ALGORITHM  look up translate image
Procedure; a crypto algorithm defines a particular procedure for encrypting or decrypting data. Specific algorithms include DES, IDEA, RC4, SKIPJACK.
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI)  look up translate image
Organization that endorses and publishes standards for various industries. annual solar limit Refers to the total amount of energy produced by the sun in a year. It is possible to calculate a worst case upper limit for the number of keys that can be tested with that amount of energy: 2^192 keys. This suggests that a secret key containing 192 bits is impractical to crack using brute force methods. ANSI X9.17 ANSI standard for secret key exchange using the DES algorithm.
ANTI-REPLAY  look up translate image
Security feature that detects when a message on the network has been received more than once. This applies stronger restrictions on duplicate packets than are enforced by typical networking protocols that don't anticipate messages being replayed maliciously.
APPLICATION ENCRYPTION  look up translate image
Cryptographic functions built into the communications protocols for a specific application, like e-mail. Examples include PEM, PGP, and SHTTP. application software Software that provides a service to a user, as opposed to lower level software that makes useful services possible. ARPANET A pioneering wide area, packet switched computer network developed by ARPA. The ARPANET was the original backbone for the modern Internet, and many of its protocols were adapted to work on the Internet,...(more)
ASYMMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY  look up translate image
In this Cryptography a Key Pair - Private and Public Key is used. Private Key is kept secret and the Public Key is Widely distributed.
ASYMMETRIC ENCRYPTION  look up translate image
Cryptography in which a pair of keys is used to encrypt and decrypt a message. The sender of the message encrypts the message with the recipient's public key. The recipient then decrypts the message with his/her private key.
ATTACK  look up translate image
An attempt to break into a cryptosystem.
AUTHENTICATION  look up translate image
The process of verifying information including identity, ownership, or authorization.
AUTHENTICATION KEY  look up translate image
Key used in a keyed-hash message authentication code, or HMAC.
BACK DOOR  look up translate image
A cipher design fault that allows access to a system who discover the secret.
BAILEY THE SWITCHER  look up translate image
Attacks network traffic by modifying the contents of other peoples' messages. block cipher Cipher that encrypts data in blocks of a fixed size. DES, IDEA, and SKIPJACK are block ciphers. browser Client application software for accessing data on the World Wide Web. brute force cracking The process of trying to recover a crypto key by trying all reasonable possibilities. bucket brigade Attack against public key exchange in which the attacker substitutes their own public key for...(more)
BENIGN KEY  look up translate image
(NSA) a key that has been protected by encryption or other means so that it can be distributed without fear of its being stolen. Also called BLACK key.content-encryption key (CEK) a key that may be further encrypted using a KEK, where the content may be a message, audio, image, video, executable code, etc.
BLIND SIGNATURE SCHEME  look up translate image
Scheme that allows one party to have another party sign a message without knowing the contents.
BLOCK CIPHER  look up translate image
Encrypts data in blocks.
CAPSTONE  look up translate image
Integrated circuit containing crypto functions for e-mail applications using the SKIPJACK cipher and the Escrowed Encryption Standard. It failed to find a customer base and is no longer manufactured.
CATEGORY-I DATA  look up translate image
University data protected specifically by federal or state law or University of Texas rules and regulations (e.g., HIPAA; FERPA; Sarbanes-Oxley, Gramm-Leach-Bliley; the Texas Identity Theft Enforcement and Protection Act; University of Texas System Business Procedure Memoranda; specific donor or employee data). University data that are not otherwise protected by a known civil statute or regulation, but which must be protected due to university contractual agreements requiring confidentiality, integrity,...(more)
CATEGORY-II DATA  look up translate image
University data not otherwise identified as Category-I data, but which are releasable in accordance with the Texas Public Information Act (e.g., contents of specific e-mail, date of birth, salary, etc.) Such data must be appropriately protected to ensure a controlled and lawful release.
CATEGORY-III DATA  look up translate image
University data that are not otherwise identified as Category-I or Category-II data (e.g., publicly available). Such data have no requirement for confidentiality, integrity, or availability.
CERTIFICATE  look up translate image
An electronic document provided by Certifying Authorities that binds information that identifies the owner with a public key.
CERTIFICATE AUTHORITY (CA)  look up translate image
A trusted third party whose purpose is to sign certificates for network entities it has authenticated using secure means. Other network entities can check the signature to verify that a CA has authenticated the bearer of a certificate.
CERTIFICATE AUTHORITY (CA) (CA)  look up translate image
Issuer of the Digital Certificate. Also validates the Identity of the End-Entity that posseses the Digital Certificate.
CERTIFICATE MANAGEMENT PLAN (OR CERTIFICATE POLICY)  look up translate image
The administrative policy for key and certificate management. This plan addresses all aspects associated with the generation, production, distribution, accounting, compromise recovery, and administration of encryption key and digital certificates. For an example, refer to the X.500 Certificate Policy for the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
CERTIFICATE PRACTICE STATEMENT (CPS)  look up translate image
A statement of the practices, which a certification authority employs in issuing certificates. See examples at the University of Washington and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
CERTIFICATE SIGNING REQUEST (CSR) (CSR)  look up translate image
Certificate Signing Request (CSR) is what you send to a Certifiate Authority (CA) to get enrolled. A CSR contains the Public Key of the End-Entity that is a requesting the Digital Certificate.
CERTIFICATE, PUBLIC KEY  look up translate image
Specially formatted block of data that contains a public key and the name of its owner. The certificate carries the digital signature of a certification authority to authenticate it. certification authority Trusted entity that signs public key certificates. checksum Numeric value used to verify the integrity of a block of data. The value is computed using a checksum procedure. A crypto checksum incorporates secret information in the checksum procedure so that it can't be reproduced by...(more)
CLIPPER  look up translate image
An encryption chip developed by the US government to be used in all encrypted communications. It would allow the government to "listen in" after obtaining a warrant.
COMMON NAME (CN) (CN)  look up translate image
Common Name is the name of the End-Entity e.g. Saqib Ali. If the End-Entity is a WebServer the CN is the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of the WebServer
COMPUTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM (CERT)  look up translate image
Organization that collects and distributes information on computer security incidents and software problems relating to publicly used networks like the Internet. Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) Organization established by the Department of Energy to track and report on computer security relevant events and situations. confidentiality The ability to ensure that information is not disclosed to people who aren't explicitly intended to receive it. Consulting Committee, International...(more)
CONFIDENTIAL  look up translate image
The classification of data of which unauthorized disclosure/use could cause serious damage to an organization or individual.
CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION  look up translate image
Information maintained by state agencies and universities that is exempt from disclosure under the provisions of the Public Records Act or other applicable state and federal laws. The controlling factor for confidential information is dissemination.
CRYPTOGRAPHY  look up translate image
The method of making information secure.
CRYPTOVARIABLE  look up translate image
NSA calls the output of a stream cipher a key or key stream. It often uses the term cryptovariable for the bits that control the stream cipher, what the public cryptographic community calls a key.
CUSTODIAN  look up translate image
Guardian or caretaker; the holder of data, the agent charged with implementing the controls specified by the owner. The custodian is responsible for the processing and storage of information. The custodians of information resources, including entities providing outsourced information resources services to the university, must: Implement the controls specified by the owner(s). Provide physical and procedural safeguards for the information resources. Assist owners in evaluating...(more)
DATA  look up translate image
Research Data are recorded information, regardless of form in which the information may be recorded, that constitutes the original data that are necessary to support research activities and validate research findings. Research data may include but are not limited to: printed records, observations and notes; electronic data; video and audio records, photographs and negatives, etc. Digital Research Data are defined as the subset of research data as defined below that are transmitted by or maintained...(more)
DATA ENCRYPTING KEYS  look up translate image
Keys used with symmetric key algorithms to apply confidentiality protection to information.
DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD (DES)  look up translate image
Block cipher that is widely used in commercial systems. It is a Federal FIPS standard so it is deemed acceptable by many financial institutions. However, its key length (56 bits) makes it vulnerable to attack by well funded adversaries. data key Crypto key that encrypts data as opposed to a key that encrypts other keys. Also called a session key.
DATA LINK  look up translate image
The portion of a system of computers that transfers data between them, including wiring, hardware, interfaces, and device driver software. decipher; decrypt; decode Convert ciphertext back into plaintext. Defense Message System (DMS) System being developed by the U. S. Department of Defense to provide secure e-mail services for critical applications. device driver Software component that controls a peripheral device. For data link devices, it manages the process of sending and receiving...(more)
DATA STEWARDSHIP  look up translate image
Data stewardship is the formalization of accountability for the management of the university's data.

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DECRYPTION  look up translate image
Term for extracting information that has been encrypted.
DERIVED KEY  look up translate image
keys computed by applying a predetermined hash algorithm or key derivation function to a password or, better, a passphrase.
DIGITAL CERTIFICATE  look up translate image
A data structure used in a public key system to bind a particular, authenticated individual to a particular public key.
DIGITAL FINGERPRINT  look up translate image
Similar to digital signature.
DIGITAL SIGNATURE  look up translate image
A digital signature is a type of electronic signature, which cannot be forged. A digital signature provides verification to the recipient that the file came from the user or entity identified as the sender, and that it has not been altered since it was signed. (See Digital Signature Standard [DSS].)
DISTRIBUTED KEY  look up translate image
A key that is divided into several parts and shared with multiple participants.
ELECTRONIC CODEBOOK (ECB)  look up translate image
Block cipher mode that consists of simply applying the cipher to blocks of data in sequence, one block at a time. electronic mail (e-mail) Application protocol for sending messages between users on a network. Messages may be queued, stored, relayed, or delayed and still eventually be delivered to the intended recipients. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) IPSEC header that encrypts the contents of an IP packet. The most recent implementations of IPSEC may also provide authentication...(more)
ELECTRONIC KEY  look up translate image
(NSA) key that is distributed in electronic (as opposed to paper) form. See EKMS.
ENCRYPTION  look up translate image
The process of converting data into a cipher or code in order to prevent unauthorized access. Encryption obfuscates data in such a manner that a specific algorithm and key are required to interpret the cipher or code. The keys are binary values that may be interpretable as the codes for text strings, or they may be arbitrary numbers. The purpose of encryption is to prevent unauthorized access to data while it is either in storage or being transmitted. See also: File-level encryption, Recoverability, Whole-disk encryption
END-ENTITY  look up translate image
An entity that participates in the PKI. Usually a Server, Service, Router, or a Person. A CA is not a End-Entity. An RA is an End-Entity to the CA
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Cryptography terms
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Created by admin
Created on 2011-06-18 01:52:19
Number of terms 151
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Sources
  • Common Crypto Terms
    www.jproc.ca
  • Data Encryption Glossary - Digital Certificates
    www.utexas.edu
  • Glossary for Internet Cryptography
    www.cryptosmith.com
    Basic Web glossary of Internet Cryptography terms, from the book `Internet Cryptography' by Richard E. Smith
  • Glossary of cryptographic terms
    www.pgp.net
  • http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Apache-WebDAV-LDAP-HOWTO/glossary.html
    tldp.org
  • List of cryptographic key types - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    en.wikipedia.org