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ABLATIVE  look up translate image
See case.
ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION  look up translate image
A noun phrase involving a non-finite form of the verb (present or past participle) which carries the meaning of a full clause, e.g. terminada la sesión = cuando se terminó la sesión. In Latin, such constructions were marked by the use of the ablative case.
ACCENT  look up translate image
1: an articulative effort giving prominence to one syllable over adjacent syllables. 2: a mark used in writing or printing to indicate a specific sound value, stress, or pitch, to distinguish words otherwise identically spelled, or to indicate that an ordinarily mute vowel should be pronounced. People with different accents might use an accent mark to indicate they accent a different syllable.
ACCUSATIVE  look up translate image
See case.
ACROLECT  look up translate image
See decreolisation.
ACTIVE  look up translate image
asserting that the person or thing represented by the grammatical subject performs the action represented by the verb. In the last sentence, the subject "person or thing" performs the action "perform", so the sentence is in the active voice. In the last sentence, the subject "subject" performs the action "perform", so the sentence is also in the active voice. (Repeat the last sentence ad infinitum.) A category of voice. See passive.
ADJECTIVE  look up translate image
a word that serves as a modifier of a noun to denote a quality of the thing named, to indicate its quantity or extent, or to specify a thing as distinct from something else. It answers the questions "which?", "how many?", and "what kind of?", though probably not all three at once. Traditionally, the part of speech which qualifies a noun. But in Spanish, adjectives are often used as nouns (el viejo 'the old man'), and in colloquial register sometimes as adverbs (va muy rpido 'it goes very quickly').
ADSTRATE  look up translate image
Pertaining to the language of a culture which is equal in status: English loanwords in Spanish may be said to be an instance of adstrate influence.
ADVERB  look up translate image
a word serving as a modifier of a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a preposition, a phrase, a clause, or a sentence, and expressing some relation of manner or quality, place, time, degree, number, cause, opposition, affirmation, or denial. It answers the questions "where?", "when?", or "how?", even if you didn't ask. Traditionally, the part of speech which qualifies a verb: some important semantic classes of adverbs are manner, time, place. Adjectives are often said to be qualified by adverbs too: e.g. muy bien.
ADVERSATIVE  look up translate image
Expressing opposition or contrast.
AFFECTIVE  look up translate image
Used of suffixes in Spanish which express an attitude, such as affection or disparagement.
AFFIX  look up translate image
A general term for a bound morpheme. An affix may be word-initial (prefix), e.g. desafortunado, word-internal (infix), e.g. cantaría, or word-final (suffix), e.g. fácilmente.
AFFRICATE  look up translate image
A combination, or coarticulation, of a plosive and a fricative, e.g. Spanish ch.
AGENT  look up translate image
The performer of a verbal action: in an active sentence, the agent is typically the subject of the sentence; in a passive sentence, the agent (the subject of the corresponding active sentence) is usually introduced by by in English and by por in Spanish. The performer of a verbal action: in an active sentence, the agent is typically the subject of the sentence; in a passive sentence, the agent is usually introduced by by in English and by por in Spanish.
AGUDA  look up translate image
An oxytone (q.v.).
ALLATIVE  look up translate image
A case-function expressing the notion of 'motion towards'.
ALLOMORPH  look up translate image
Cf. allophone. A variant form of a morpheme: -s and -es are allomorphs of the Spanish plural morpheme.
ALLOPHONE  look up translate image
Cf. allomorph. A variant form of a phoneme. Allophones are in complementary distribution, i.e., they never form oppositions with one another. Allophones are determined by the phonetic context in which the phoneme appears: e.g. the /d/ phoneme in Spanish has the allophone [d] in initial position and the allophone [] in intervocalic position.
ALVEOLAR  look up translate image
Pertaining to the alveolum, or ridge between the upper teeth and the palate.
ALVEOLUM  look up translate image
See alveolar.
AMELIORATION  look up translate image
The development of a more favourable meaning, e.g. Lat. casa 'hut' > Sp. casa 'house'.
ANALOGY  look up translate image
Parallel development of a form. Analogy is particularly apparent when an irregular form regularizes, ie, develops in parallel with the regular (productive) forms of the language, e.g. vencer now has the past participle vencido rather than the medieval venudo. However, analogy can sometimes result in the irregularising of a regular form: andar has developed the irregular Preterite form anduve, presumably by analogy with other irregular Preterites in -u-e (tuve, supe, etc).
ANALYTIC  look up translate image
See periphrastic.
ANAPHORIC  look up translate image
Reference back to an element in the preceding discourse. See also cataphoric.
ANTECEDENT  look up translate image
See relative clause.
ANTONYM  look up translate image
An opposite: bueno and malo are antonyms.
APHERESIS  look up translate image
Removal, or fall (of a sound), e.g. Lat. apotheca > Sp. bodega.
APICAL  look up translate image
Pertaining to the tip of the tongue. The [s] of standard Spanish is an apico-alveolar sound. The tongue is often very slightly curved back ('retroflex').
APOCOPE  look up translate image
The loss of final sounds. Primer is an apocopated form of primero.
APODOSIS  look up translate image
The part of a conditional sentence which expresses the consequence: si tengo dinero comprar el libro. See also protasis.
APPOSITION  look up translate image
a grammatical construction in which two typically adjacent nouns referring to the same person or thing stand in the same syntactical relation to the rest of a sentence. For example, in "the rally of the opposition Labor Party", "Labor Party" is in apposition with "opposition". The juxtaposition of two nouns or noun-phrases which have the same syntactic function, e.g. Valladolid, lugar de nacimiento de Felipe II.
ARCHIPHONEME  look up translate image
Oppositions between phonemes are neutralized in certain phonetic environments, e.g. the opposition of /n/ and /m/ before /p/. In such circumstances an archiphoneme is said to occur.
ARTICLE  look up translate image
one of a small set of words or affixes (as a, an, and the) used with nouns to limit or give definiteness to the application. English has an indefinite article (a, an) and a definite article (the). Welsh has only a definite article. I'm sure whole articles have been written about articles. A somewhat arbitrary grammatical category: a class of determiners, which have a complex range of semantic functions. Spanish and English have a definite and an indefinite article, respectively el/the and un/a.
ASPECT  look up translate image
Impressionistically, relating to the way in which an action or state is viewed: continuous, repeated, within fixed limits, etc. The difference between the Imperfect and Preterite tenses in Spanish is usually thought of as an aspectual difference, though several other verb-forms, and especially the periphrastic verb-forms, have aspectual values.
ASPIRATE  look up translate image
A sound chiefly consisting of the exhalation of breath, e.g. [h].
ASSIBILATION  look up translate image
Articulated as a sibilant: /r/ is so articulated (approximating to [z]) in a number of dialects.
ASSIMILATION  look up translate image
the process of conforming one sound to another to aid in pronunciation. For example, in the phrase "in Colorado", the "n" in "in" becomes palatalized because of the following "C". It may take you a while to assimilate this concept. Making similar: sounds in close proximity often assimilate features of one another, and this can be an important factor in sound change. /n/ before /p/ is usually realised as [m] because it assimilates the labial features of the following consonant.
ASSOCIATION  look up translate image
Relatedness of meaning.
ASSONANCE  look up translate image
A rhyme based on correspondence of vowels alone, and characteristic of Spanish poetry (thus lado and llano assonate, with the vowel pattern a-o).
ATELIC  look up translate image
See telic.
ATONIC  look up translate image
ATTENUATION  look up translate image
A weakening (of meaning). Lat. teneo 'to hold' weakens to become the general verb of possession tener in Spanish.
AUGMENTATIVE  look up translate image
A form which indicates largeness (e.g. the Spanish suffix -n).
AUXILIARY  look up translate image
A verb used with another, non-finite, form of a verb to form a periphrasis.
BACK VOWEL  look up translate image
A vowel articulated by the raising of the tongue towards the velum.
BACK-FORMATION  look up translate image
The exploitation of a morphemic component not previously used in isolation. The OCast. adjective prieto is a back-formation from the verb apretar.
BASILECT  look up translate image
See decreolisation.
BILABIAL  look up translate image
See labial.
BINARY  look up translate image
See opposition.
BOUND  look up translate image
See morpheme.
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Glossary of linguistic terms
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Created by admin
Created on 2012-06-27 20:32:19
Number of terms 379
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