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- A LANGUAGE look up translate image
- The interpreter's dominant language, into which he or she is competent to interpret professionally. Usually, but not always, this is the interpreter's native language.
- ACCREDITATION look up translate image
- A formal process for evaluating the competence of a translator, which may include examinations, a review of education and experience, etc., conducted by a professional association, such as the American Translators Association.
- ACCREDITED TRANSLATOR look up translate image
- The translator must provide their accreditation number and stamp provided by the National Authority for Accredited Translators and Interpreters.
- ACOUSTIC INSULATION look up translate image
- A measure of the amount of noise transmitted from a conference room to an interpretation booth, from an interpretation booth to a conference room, and from one interpretation booth to another adjacent booth. The difference in sound pressure levels between an interpretation booth and the room where it is set up, or between two adjacent booths. The sound pressure levels are measured in octave bands, both in the booths and the room.
- ACTIVE LANGUAGES look up translate image
- (1) The language or languages into which an interpreter is competent to interpret professionally. (2) The term is also used in meetings & conventions to mean the target languages into which interpreting is provided. For example, in a convention where all presentations are to be given in English and interpretation is provided into Spanish, French, and Russian, these three would be the active languages, while English would be the passive language.
- AD HOC INTERPRETING look up translate image
- Interpreting between two languages, in conversations, between two or more people. Used, for example in business meetings, for phone calls, during site visits and social events. The term is sometimes used loosely to include consecutive interpreting.
- ADAPTATION look up translate image
- Unlike a transcription (or literal translation), an adaptation is aimed at bringing the target text in line with the spirit of the language, thus producing a text which is not obviously a translation. (from trans-k.co.uk)
- ADVERTISING TRANSLATOR look up translate image
- Although there are translators and companies that specialize in translating advertisements, the practice is not recommended. Advertising should not be translated, but rather adapted to the target language.
- ALIGNMENT look up translate image
- The act of matching segments or sentences in translated documents for importation as translation units or sentence pairs in a translation memory tool.
- APOSTILLE look up translate image
- An official state-issued stamp or attachment to any public or private document that makes the document legal for use in any country that has signed the Hague Convention on Documents. In the UK apostilles are issued by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
- ARTWORK look up translate image
- Any material in the form of text incorporating illustrations, drawings, design elements, coloured panels, etc, produced by a designer for reproduction in a leaflet, booklet, magazine or other printed medium. When a translation is to be presented in the same format as the original artwork, this will involve a typesetting process in addition to translation and proofreading. Artwork files must be provided to allow typesetting to be carried out.
- AUDIENCE look up translate image
- Strictly speaking, in a meeting or convention, it refers to the listeners, or end users of an interpretation. However, it is commonly also used to refer to the readership, or end users, of a translation.
- AUDIOVISUAL COMPANY look up translate image
- A company that provides audiovisual equipment for meetings, conventions, and special events. Some of these companies may also rent interpretation equipment as a sideline. Since their main business is not interpretation, they neither have the expertise required to design the best simultaneous interpretation configuration, nor the best equipment for every job.
- AUTOMATIC CONTENT ENRICHMENT (ACE) look up translate image
- A bridge between single language websites and localization, ACE technology associates English words and phrases on web pages with pop-ups containing information in a user's native language.
- B LANGUAGE look up translate image
- A language that a translator or interpreter can speak, read and write almost as well as their native language (or -A language), and well enough to translate into as well as out of. (from trans-k.co.uk)
- BACK TRANSLATION look up translate image
- Translation back from the target language into the source language by a second translator. For example, if a document has been translated from English into French, the back translation would go from the translated French back into English to allow a speaker of English to check that no meaning has been lost in the translation process. However, a back translation will not necessarily be precisely same as the original text, nor should it be, as the translation process is much more subtle than a mere...(more)
- BACKGROUND INFORMATION look up translate image
- Information relating to the source text that helps the translator perform the translation with more accuracy and in context using the correct style and tone. It will provide extra facts about the subject matter, the context, the audience and terminoloy. Examples include previously translated documents, glossaries with terminology, definitions, etc.
- BALANCED TRANSLATION look up translate image
- is one that can be considered the middle ground between source and target languages asto the respect of meaning, structure, etc. of both languages. A translator adopts the original text into the target language using the normal word order, grammar and syntax of the target language preserving the meaning of the source language. This is what translators normally try to achieve.
- BI-DIRECTIONAL LANGUAGE look up translate image
- Languages that are read right-to-left but which support left-to-right words for European terms.
- BID look up translate image
- The translation of a bid is a complex process and must be managed as a multipart translation. Bids are typically made up of a technical bid (which requires a technical translator), a financial bid (financial translator), as well as a contract and pertinent legislation (legal translator).
- BILINGUAL look up translate image
- If used accurately, "bilingual" is a term is reserved for those speakers with native speaker proficiency in two languages and not merely those who speak two languages.
- BOOTH look up translate image
- Interpretation booths are divided into fixed, which are built into some conference rooms, and mobile, which are set up and dismantled wherever needed, typically in hotels and convention centers. There can be huge differences in the quality of mobile booths. While some companies do have booths that comply with ISO 4043, often what passes for a booth is nothing more than a flimsy shield that affords almost no sound insulation.
- BROKER look up translate image
- A translation or interpretation broker is a person that is not a qualified translator or interpreter and acts as middleman between freelancers, interpretation equipment companies, and clients. Usually, they "source out" freelance translators and interpreters from the many online directories and pay bottom dollar for their services, while charging the client as much as, or more than, a reputable translation company would.
- C LANGUAGE look up translate image
- A language that a translator or interpreter can read and understand well enough to translate out of, but cannot write or speak well enough to translate or interpret into. (from trans-k.co.uk)
- CALCULATION OF TEXT VOLUME look up translate image
- All translation agencies need to calculate the text volume or word count. This is the basis for pricing, determining turnaround times and the number of translators needed to complete the translation. Not all companies or countries use the same method of calculation. In the UK most translation agencies will calculate the text volume using the source word count. However, in countries such as Germany and France, some translation agencies work on the number of characters or lines.
- CAT look up translate image
- See "Computer Assisted Translation"
- CERTIFIED COURT INTERPRETER look up translate image
- A person who has passed an examination to assess competency to interpret during court proceedings. In the US, although the requirements for certification of court interpreters vary according to the jurisdiction, they generally do not demand a high level of competence. Not to be confused with a legal interpreter, who is a highly qualified simultaneous interpreter with knowledge of comparative law and the legal systems of civil law countries and common law countries. See also Federally Certified Court Interpreters.
- CERTIFIED INTERPRETER look up translate image
- In the US, there is no national interpreter certification program (other than for Federally Certified Court Interpreters), although various agencies attempt certification procedures, with varying degrees of success.
- CERTIFIED TRANSLATION look up translate image
- A certified translation is where a translation agency or freelance translator carry out a piece of translation work then certify to the fact that they carried out the work and that it is a true and accurate translation, in the form of an accompanying certificate or signature. Certified translations are usually necessary for official documents.
- CERTIFIED TRANSLATOR look up translate image
- There is no such thing, contrary to the claims made by countless "certified translators" who advertise on the web and the yellow pages, as there is no official certification program for translators in the US. Next time someone claims to be a "certified translator," ask who certified him.
- CHARACTER SET look up translate image
- The characters (and their byte codes) available in an application program. The most common is the ASCII (or ANSI) set of 128 characters, in which CAPITAL LETTER A has the code 41 in hexadecimal, 065 decimal, and 01000001 binary. Various localized character sets are ISO 8859-1 or Latin-1, the most common encoding of characters for Western European languages. ISO 8859-1 through 8859-15 are 256 character sets. The first 128 characters are the same as ASCII, and the upper 128 encode Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, etc. characters.
- CIVIL LAW COUNTRIES look up translate image
- Countries where all law is created by the enactment of legislatures, as opposed to England and the United States (common law countries), where case law and precedents are an integral part of the legal system. It takes a highly skilled legal translator to translate legal documents from a civil law country into the language of a common law country and vice versa, since many of the legal concepts do not have exact parallels.
- CMYK look up translate image
- Cyan Magenta Yellow Black: the colour space used for commercial printing and most colour computer printers.
- COMMON LAW COUNTRIES look up translate image
- England and the United States, where case law and precedents are an integral part of the legal system, as opposed to civil law countries. It takes a highly skilled legal translator to translate legal documents from a civil law country into the language of a common law country and vice versa, since many of the legal concepts do not have exact parallels.
- COMPUTER AIDED TRANSLATION (CAT) look up translate image
- Use of a translation memory tool by a human translator. The TM tool enables the translator not to have to translate the same sentence twice. More importantly, it guarantees that translations will be identical, when consistency is a requirement for the material, and yet enables a different translation when literary quality and creativity are prized.
- COMPUTER ASSISTED TRANSLATION (CAT) look up translate image
- Computer Assisted Translation describes a translation produced with the use of translation memory software that helps professional human translators to carry out translations with greater efficiency and consistency of terminology. CAT is not suitable for all types of text, particularly not where the text requires an element of creative flair in the translation. The software works by creating a database of previously translated sentences which are then suggested as translations when they re-appear...(more)
- COMPUTER TRANSLATION look up translate image
- Another term for machine translation. For more on this topic, see How Well Does Computer Translation Work?
- COMPUTER-AIDED TRANSLATION look up translate image
- Another term for computer-assisted translation.
- COMPUTER-AIDED TRANSLATION (CAT) look up translate image
- Computer-assisted translation, Computer-aided translation, or CAT is a form of translation wherein a human translator translates texts using computer software designed to support and facilitate the translation process. (Wikipedia 2006)
- COMPUTER-ASSISTED TRANSLATION look up translate image
- Translation using software that manages dictionaries and user-defined glossaries. When the program encounters previously translated words and phrases, it suggests a translation and the translator decides whether to accept or reject it.
- CONFERENCE INTERPRETATION look up translate image
- simultaneous interpreting of a speaker's statements at a conference, symposium orany other large meeting.
- CONFERENCE INTERPRETER look up translate image
- An Interpreter with highly specialised skills, qualified to work at conferences, who provides simultaneous interpretation of a speaker's words in one direction only from one language into another, usually from an interpreting booth, speaking through a microphone and sound system.
- CONFERENCE TRANSLATOR look up translate image
- A person who translates written text intended for use during a conference, or generated during a conference (such as conference proceedings, etc.) Sometimes the term is erroneously applied to a conference interpreter.
- CONFIDENTIALITY look up translate image
- For translators and interpreters, professional confidentiality is absolute. It goes into effect the moment the translator or interpreter is given access to the client's information and remains in effect until his or her death. It applies in all cases, with no exceptions. Some countries have laws granting client-translator and client-interpreter confidentiality the same status as is enjoyed by physicians and lawyers.
- CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETATION look up translate image
- one of three modes of interpreting (along with simultaneous and sightinterpretation), in which a speaker pauses every few sentences to allow the interpreter to interpret what has just been said.
- CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETER look up translate image
- An interpreter who listens while the speaker speaks and then interprets while the speaker pauses. The interpreter providing consecutive interpretation sits, either at the same table as the speaker, or at separate table, and speaks, either into the same microphone, or a separate microphone, so that everyone in the room can hear. The interpreter may take notes while he or she listens.
- CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING look up translate image
- An interpreting technique whereby the interpreter speaks during pauses or gaps when the speaker has finished speaking or pauses for interpreting. More formal than ad hoc interpreting it is used, for example, in formal business meetings, for negotiations, training sessions or lectures.
- CONTENT look up translate image
- Language conveys meaning through both, form and content, and they must both be transferred into parallel and equivalent language in order to produce a translation.
- CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM look up translate image
- A content management system (CMS) is used to manage the content of an organisation such as web site text, internal documentation or product catalogues. Typically, a CMS consists of two elements: the content management application (CMA) and the content delivery application (CDA).
- CONTROLLED LANGUAGE look up translate image
- Language with a restricted vocabulary and restricted rules of formulation. Used, for example, in technical documentation to make the text easier to understand for users or for non native speakers and to facilitate machine translation.
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