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- ABANDON look up translate image
- To give up all concern in a game or formally stating a voluntary decision to give up a game because of discouragement, weariness, distaste etc.
- ACCELERATED PAIRING SYSTEMS look up translate image
- Swiss system variant used to reduce the number of tournament leaders in as few rounds as is practical. The Swiss system lists the competitors based on strength, then cuts the list in the middle and pairs the highest player in each group against each other and so forth. In the Accelerated System, the field is divided into 4 groups with the top player of group-01 paired against the top player of group-02 and the top player of group-03 against the top player of group-4 and so forth.
- ACCEPT look up translate image
- To take an offered piece, as in the King's Gambit Accepted opening 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4. See also "Decline".
- ACTIVE look up translate image
- An aggressive move, line of play, or position. When mentioned in regards to a playing style, it indicates sharp or tactical tendencies.
- ACTIVE DEFENSE look up translate image
- The use of attack as a defense, rather than passively trying to cover weaknesses.
- ACTIVE PIECE look up translate image
- A developed piece that is actively participating in the conduct of the game. Active pieces form the basis of any attack.
- ACTIVITY look up translate image
- The quality of a Chess position that describes mobility or freedom of movement for pieces. An active piece is more likely to have a positive influence in the outcome of a game than an inactive piece (a cramped, blocked, or undeveloped piece). Active pieces is one key quality in assessing a Chess position.
- ACTUAL PLAY look up translate image
- See post-key play.
- ADJOURNMENT look up translate image
- An unfinished game may be adjourned and continued at a later time/date. The player to make the next move on the board is required to write the next move on a piece of paper which is given to the referee. This is called a sealed move. When the game recommences this move must be the next move played on the chessboard. The adjournment rule was first introduced in 1878 in Paris.
- ADJUDICATION look up translate image
- In amateur events, games not finished within a specified time period, sometimes are adjudicated by a strong player who determines the outcome of the game. This practice has fallen out of fashion and has been replaced by "sudden death".
- ADVANCED PAWN look up translate image
- This term describes a Pawn which has passed the central line of the chessboard which is between the fourth and fifth ranks.
- ADVANTAGE look up translate image
- A superiority of position, usually based on force, time, space or Pawn structure. A player whose position is considered objectively better is said to have the advantage. A judgment of an advantage must consider complex criteria such as material (more pieces or Pawns), space (more room to maneuver), activity (more influence of pieces), King safety (one side has a safer King than the other), or other weaknesses (backward Pawn, etc.).
Where the current position of the game favours one side over another....(more)
- AJEEB look up translate image
- A life-size figure which was operated by many Chess and Checker players including Constant Ferdinand Burille. Built by Charles Hopper in 1865. It played 900+ games and lost only three times and never lost a checker game.
- ALBINO look up translate image
- A problem in which, at some point in the solution, a white pawn on its starting square makes each of its four possible moves (forward one square, forward two squares, capture to the left, capture to the right). If the same behaviour is exhibited by a black pawn, it is a Pickaninny.
- ALERTNESS look up translate image
- The ability to take advantage of the opponent's inaccuracies while playing accurately yourself.
- ALGEBRAIC NOTATION look up translate image
- Same as Chess notation or simply notation. It is a combination of letters and numbers (a to h and 1 to 8) which denotes the 64 squares of the board. Algebraic notation has become the standard.
The modern and most popular way of recording chess moves, using single letter piece identifiers and unique alphabetic file and numeric rank identifiers.
- ALLUMWANDLUNG look up translate image
- A problem in which the solution includes pawn promotions to all possible pieces (in orthodox chess, to bishop, knight, rook and queen; in fairy chess, possibly to fairy pieces).
- ALPHA-BETA PRUNING look up translate image
- A technique used by computer programmers to cut down on the number of possible moves a computer has to evaluate before choosing the best move.
- ANALYSIS look up translate image
- The calculation and detailed study of a series of moves based on a particular position in a game.
Calculation of possible moves and variations for a position.
- ANNOTATION look up translate image
- Written comments about a position or a game, it can be narrative, Chess notation or both.
Written comments about a game or position. May include variations from the main line of play.
- ANNOUNCED MATE look up translate image
- A former practice to loudly proclaim a Checkmate. It is no longer permitted by the rules of Chess.
- ANTI-BRISTOL look up translate image
- The interference of one black piece by another like-moving one on the same line (if the pieces are on different lines, it is a Holzhausen).
- ANTICIPATION look up translate image
- If the theme and setting of a particular problem has already appeared in an earlier problem without the knowledge of the later composer, the problem is said to be anticipated. The position does not have to be exactly the same, just very similar. Where this is done deliberately by the later composer, the term plagiarised is used. There is a real chance of anticipation if the problem has a relatively simple theme, since there are only a finite number of positions and themes, and chess problems have been composed for hundreds of years. However, anticipations are not always noticed immediately.
- ARBITER look up translate image
- Chess has Arbiters for the enforcement of the rules.
- ARISTOCRAT look up translate image
- A problem which has no pawns in the initial position.
- ARTIFICIAL CASTLING look up translate image
- To exchange the positions of the king and rook other than by castling. Also known as "Castling by hand".
- ARTIFICIAL MANOEUVRE look up translate image
- Trying a bit too hard, or making an odd use of pieces.
- ATTACK look up translate image
- An aggressive action during a game or to threaten to capture a piece or Pawn. Minority Attack: an attack of minor pieces against a majority of minor pieces of the opponent with the objective of creating a weakness in his position.
1. An aggressive move or series of moves in a certain area of the board. 2. Threatening the capture of a piece or pawn or an empty square.
- B look up translate image
- Abbreviation for Bishop.
- BABSON TASK look up translate image
- A problem in which black promotion defences to all possible pieces are answered by white promotions to the same piece black has promoted to. An extreme form of Allumwandlung.
- BACK RANK look up translate image
- The first rank on the board for each player. It can become weak late in the game if the rooks don't cover it enough.
- BACK RANK MATE look up translate image
- A checkmate made by a Queen or Rook along the 8th rank where the opponent's King is blocked in by its own Pawns.
- BACKWARD PAWN look up translate image
- A Pawn that has trailed behind and is no longer supported by other Pawns. A backward Pawn is consider a fundamental weakness in a Chess position because it can be attacked. Its defense requires pieces that are better employed in other plans. See also isolated Pawn.
1. A pawn at the base of a pawn chain that can't move forward due to one or more enemy pawns on the adjacent files. 2. A pawn which stands on an open file and cannot be protected by any other pawn.
- BAD BISHOP look up translate image
- Any ineffective Bishop. When a Bishop has little or no mobility because of being hemmed by Pawns positioned on squares of the same color as the Bishop's square, it is said to be a "bad Bishop".
A bishop whose movement is restricted by friendly pawns on its colour squares. These friendly pawns are in turn restricted by enemy pawns or pieces, thereby being unable to vacate squares for the bishop.
- BASE OF PAWN CHAIN look up translate image
- The very last pawn in a diagonal chain. It is the weakest point due to it not being supported by another pawn.
- BATTERY look up translate image
- Doubling Rooks on a file or a Queen and a Bishop on a diagonal.
A lineup of pieces that move similarly on a single file or diagonal, usually pointing toward a critical point in the enemy's camp. Batteries can be created by Queen and Rooks on a file or rank, and Queen and Bishops on a diagonal.
- BCE look up translate image
- Basic Chess Endings.
- BCF look up translate image
- British Chess Federation.
- BCO look up translate image
- Batsford Chess Openings, the standard one volume reference book on opening strategy.
- BERSERKER look up translate image
- A rash playing style characterized by frenzied attacking with one or two pieces, perhaps with little regard for strategy or danger.
- BIND look up translate image
- Where a player is so tied up he has trouble finding useful moves. See "Squeeze".
- BISHOP PAIR look up translate image
- Two Bishops vs. a Bishop and a Knight or two Knights. If both Bishops on the same side have survived late into a game of Chess, then their value is enhanced for two reasons. Together they can attack a piece on any color square. Their mobility is usually less restricted by Pawns late in the game. Therefore, a Bishop pair is a notable advantage.
Two bishops against a bishop and knight or two knights. Two bishops are effective together because they control diagonals of both colours, and work very well in open positions. See "Opposite colour bishops".
- BLINDFOLD CHESS look up translate image
- Games played without seeing the board. A Chess player who plays one or more opponents without sight of the board.
- BLITZ CHESS look up translate image
- Rapid or lightning Chess games usually clocked in five or ten minutes.
- BLOCK look up translate image
- A problem in which the key provides no threat, but instead puts black in a position of zugzwang, where every move leads to a mate. In a complete block, all of black's moves have mates provided in the set play and the key is simply a waiting move; in an incomplete block, not all black moves are provided with mates in the set play - the key provides for those that don't; in a mutate some of the mates provided in the set play are changed following the key.
- BLOCKADE look up translate image
- To stop an enemy Pawn by placing a piece or pieces directly in front of it. This term describes the situation where the advance of a Pawn is prevented by an opponent's piece directly in front of the frustrated Pawn.
Immobilization of an enemy pawn by placing a piece (preferably a knight) on the square directly in front of it.
- BLOCKADING SQUARE look up translate image
- The square directly in front of an isolated or backward pawn. This square can also serve as an outpost square, as an occupying piece cannot be chased away by pawns.
- BLOCKED look up translate image
- This term describes a piece whose mobility is limited by the physical presence of another piece often of the same color. Specific positions that involve blocked pieces include discovered check, double check, and blockade.
- BLUNDER look up translate image
- A very bad move that loses material or initiative without any or little advantage. A mistake that overlooks a simple tactical response.
A horrible mistake where material is lost, serious tactical or positional concessions are made, or the game is lost.
- BOOK look up translate image
- The written body of high-level chess play. "Book" moves are standard. A book player memorizes openings and their variations, and goes to pieces if his opponent strays from the accepted line.
1. Published opening theory. 2. The library of opening moves maintained by a computer chess playing program.
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