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- "REASONABLE MAN" STANDARD OF LAW look up translate image
- the idea that legal judgments should be made based on what would be acceptable to a reasonable man in the society. Jury systems in the Western World are based on this assumption.
- ACADEMIC ANTHROPOLOGY look up translate image
- careers that involve the teaching of anthropology at colleges and universities. Academic anthropologists do research, but the objective is more for the contribution to general knowledge.
- ACCULTURATION look up translate image
- culture change resulting from contact between cultures. A process of external culture change.
- ACEPHALOUS SOCIETY look up translate image
- a society in which political power is diffused to the degree that there are no institutionalized political leadership roles such as chiefs and kings. Bands and tribes are acephalous. Most foragers and simple horticulturalists have highly egalitarian, acephalous societies. The word "acephalous" is Greek for "without a head."
- ACHIEVED STATUS look up translate image
- Social status that comes through talents, choices, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments, rather than ascription.
- ACTUAL BEHAVIOR look up translate image
- what people really do in their lives rather than what they think they are doing or what they believe they should be doing. In most societies there is a discrepancy between these three kinds of behavior. It is important for anthropologists to distinguish between actual, believed, and ideal behavior when they learn about another society and its culture.
- ADAPTATION look up translate image
- patterns of behavior which enable a culture to cope with its surroundings.
- ADAPTIVE MECHANISM look up translate image
- a behavior, strategy, or technique for obtaining food and surviving in a particular environment. Successful adaptive mechanisms provide a selective advantage in the competition for survival with other life forms. For humans, the most important adaptive mechanism is culture.
- ADJUDICATION look up translate image
- mediation with the ultimate decision being made by an unbiased third party.
- ADVOCACY VIEW look up translate image
- of applied anthropology; the belief that precisely because anthropologists are experts on human problems and social change, and because they study, understand, and respect cultural values, they should make policy affecting people.
- AESTHETICS look up translate image
- Appreciation of the qualities perceived in works of art; the mind and emotions in relation to a sense of beauty.
- AFFINAL look up translate image
- members of one's kindred who are related through a marital linkage.
- AFFINALS look up translate image
- Relatives by marriage, whether of lineals (e.g., son's wife) or collaterals (e.g., sister's husband).
- AFFINITY look up translate image
- a kinship link created by marriage, such as the bond between a man and his wife and her family (in-laws). People who have an affinity relationship with each other are "affines" . See consanguinity.
- AFFIRMATIVE ACTION look up translate image
- a program or policy intended to correct the effects of past discrimination in employment, education, housing, etc. Usually affirmative action in the United States includes out-reach programs, hiring goals, set-asides, and/or extra opportunities for members of underrepresented minorities.
- AGE CATEGORY look up translate image
- a culturally defined category based on age used to define the life cycle, such as infant, youth, teenager, young adult, adult, elderly.
- AGE GRADE look up translate image
- a social category or status based on an age range.
- AGE GRADES look up translate image
- age-based categories of people recognized by a culture. In North America, for example, we generally label people as children, teenagers, adults, middle aged, and elderly or senior citizens. See age sets.
- AGE SET look up translate image
- a social group defined by those who share the same age status and are a recognizable group.
- AGE SETS look up translate image
- age grades that are clearly recognized in a culture as distinct identifiable groups of people. They consist of people of similar age and usually of the same gender who share a common identity and maintain close ties throughout their lives. They also pass through age-related statuses together as a group. The transition between these statuses is usually marked by a rite of passage.
- AGGRESSION look up translate image
- acts or threats designed to cause injury.
- AGNATIC DESCENT look up translate image
- see patrilineal descent.
- AGRICULTURE look up translate image
- Nonindustrial systems of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor.
- ALTIPLANO look up translate image
- a high plateau or plain.
- AMBILINEAL look up translate image
- a corporate kin group that traces relationships through either the female or male lines. Also called cognatic descent.
- AMBILINEAL DESCENT look up translate image
- a form of cognatic descent in which individuals can select to trace descent either matrilineally or patrilineally. The decision may be made each generation based on the relative wealth and/or importance of the father's and the mother's family lines.
- AMBILOCAL RESIDENCE look up translate image
- the residence pattern in which a newly married couple has the choice of living with or near the groom's or the bride's family.
- AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (AAA) look up translate image
- the major professional association for anthropologists in the United States.
- ANCESTOR FOCUSED KINDRED look up translate image
- a kindred in which the person to whom all members trace their kinship ties is dead. An example would be the descendants of a well known pioneer family. It is rare for a kindred to continue functioning as an effective kin group after the death of the individual who was its focus. This usually occurs only when the ancestor was historically important.
- ANCESTRAL SPIRITS look up translate image
- souls or ghosts of ancestors. A belief in ancestral spirits is consistent with the widespread belief that humans have at least two parts--a physical body and some kind of non-physical spirit. The spirit portion is generally believed to be freed from the body by death and continues to exist. Ancestral spirits are often seen as retaining an active interest and even membership in their family and society.
- ANDROGYNOUS look up translate image
- the characteristic of having a blend of both masculine and feminine personality characteristics but not strongly either one.
- ANIMATISM look up translate image
- belief in an impersonal and divisible supernatural force or forces, which reside in living or unliving things.
- ANIMISM look up translate image
- a belief that natural phenomena such as rocks, trees, thunder, or celestial bodies have life or divinity.
- ANOMIE look up translate image
- a feeling of alienation and isolation from all other people, including family and friends.
- ANTHROPOCENTRIC look up translate image
- the idea that humans are the most important beings in the universe.
- ANTHROPOLOGICAL LINGUISTICS look up translate image
- the branch of anthropology that studies human language. Linguistic anthropology is mainly concerned with the technical analysis of language.
- ANTHROPOLOGY look up translate image
- the study of humanity; divisions are physical anthropology, archaeology, ethnology, and anthropological linguistics.
- ANTHROPOLOGY AND EDUCATION look up translate image
- Anthropological research in classrooms, homes, and neighborhoods, viewing students as total cultural creatures whose enculturation and attitudes toward education belong to a larger context that includes family, peers, and society.
- ANTI-MISCEGENATION LAWS look up translate image
- laws prohibiting sexual intercourse and marriage between people of different "races".
- ANTICIPATORY SORORATE look up translate image
- a cultural pattern in which some sexual permissiveness is allowed between a man and his wife's sister in anticipation of a future marriage between them. This is usually associated with sororal polygyny.
- APARTHEID look up translate image
- racial, political, and economic segregation of non-European peoples.
- APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY look up translate image
- using the knowledge of anthropology to address human real-world problems.
- AQUATIC FORAGING look up translate image
- a specialized subsistence pattern that concentrates on fish and/or marine mammal hunting. Aquatic foraging is usually a far more reliable and productive strategy for obtaining food than the diversified hunting and gathering of most foragers who live away from the coasts and major rivers. The most well known aquatic foragers lived on the Northwest Coast of North America from the Klamath River of California to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. These societies specialized in salmon fishing along the...(more)
- ARCHAEOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY (PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY) look up translate image
- The study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through the culture's material remains.
- ARCHAEOLOGY look up translate image
- study of material culture.
- ARRANGED MARRIAGE look up translate image
- a marriage partner selection process in which the future bride and groom usually do not participate actively in the decision. Marriages are commonly arranged by parents or their agents when the marriages are seen as principally uniting two families rather than just husband and wife. There is also often the rationalization that teenagers and young adults are too inexperienced to make a wise mate selection. The tradition of arranged marriages has been dramatically undermined whenever romantic love becomes a popular notion in a society.
- ART look up translate image
- human endeavor thought to be aesthetic and have meaning beyond simple description. Includes music, dance, sculpture, painting, drawing, stitchery, weaving, poetry, writing, woodworking, etc. A medium of expression where the individual and culture come together.
- ARTS look up translate image
- The arts include the visual arts, literature (written and oral), music, and theater arts.
- ASCRIBED STATUS look up translate image
- Social status (e.g., race or gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying.
- ASSIMILATION look up translate image
- when one ethnic group absorbs another, so that the cultural traits of the assimilated group become indistinguishable.
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