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 (A,B)TREE look up translate image
 A search tree with the restrictions that all leaves are at the same depth and all internal nodes have between a and b children, where a and b are integers such that 2 ≤ a ≤ (b+1)/2. The root may have as few as 2 children.
 ~ look up translate image
 (1) Proportional to. (2) Asymptotically equal to. A theoretical measure of the execution of an algorithm, usually the time or memory needed, given the problem size n, which is usually the number of items. Informally, saying some equation f(n) ~ g(n) means it grows at the same rate as g(n). More formally, it means limx → ∞f(x)/g(x) = 1.
 0ARY FUNCTION look up translate image
 A function that takes no arguments.
 0BASED INDEXING look up translate image
 Indexing (an array) beginning with 0.
 23 TREE look up translate image
 A Btree of order 3, that is, internal nodes have two or three children.
 234 TREE look up translate image
 A Btree of order 4, that is, internal nodes have two, three, or four children.
 2CHOICE HASHING look up translate image
 A variant of a hash table in which keys are added by hashing with two hash functions. The key is put in the array position with the fewer (colliding) keys. Some collision resolution scheme is needed, unless keys are kept in buckets. The averagecase cost of a successful search is O(2 + (m1)/n), where m is the number of keys and n is the size of the array. The most collisions is log2 ln n + Θ(m/n) with high probability.
 2LEFT HASHING look up translate image
 A dictionary implemented with two hash tables of equal size, T1 and T2, and two different hash functions, h1 and h2. A new key is put in table 2 only if there are fewer (colliding) keys at T2[h2(key)] than at T1[h1(key)], otherwise it is put in table 1. With n keys and two tables of size n/2, the most collisions is 0.69... log2 ln n + O(1) with high probability.
 8 QUEENS look up translate image
 Place eight chess queens on an 8 × 8 board such that no queen can attack another. Efficiently find all possible placements.
 ABSOLUTE PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE look up translate image
 An approximation algorithm will return a solution at most a bounded amount more (or less, as appropriate) than the optimum.
 ABSTRACT DATA TYPE look up translate image
 A set of data values and associated operations that are precisely specified independent of any particular implementation.
 ACCEPTING STATE look up translate image
 If a finite state machine finishes an input string and is in an accepting state, the string is accepted or considered to be valid.
 ACKERMANN'S FUNCTION look up translate image
 A function of two parameters whose value grows very fast.
 ACTIVE DATA STRUCTURE look up translate image
 A data structure with an associated thread or process that performs internal operations to give the external behavior of another, usually more general, data structure.
 ACYCLIC GRAPH look up translate image
 A graph with no path that starts and ends at the same vertex.
 ADAPTIVE HEAP SORT look up translate image
 A variant of heapsort that uses a randomized binary search tree (RBST) to structure the input according to any preexisting order. The RBST is used to select candidates that are put into the heap so the heap doesn't need to keep track of all elements.
 ADAPTIVE HUFFMAN CODING look up translate image
 A nearminimal variablelength character coding that changes based on the frequency of characters processed. As characters are processed, frequencies are updated and codes are changed (or, the coding tree is modified).
 ADAPTIVE KD TREE look up translate image
 A tree for multidimensional points where successive levels may be split along different dimensions.
 ADAPTIVE SORT look up translate image
 A sorting algorithm that can take advantage of existing order in the input, reducing its requirements for computational resources as a function of the disorder in the input.
 ADDRESSCALCULATION SORT look up translate image
 A sort algorithm which uses knowledge of the domain of the items to calculate the position of each item in the sorted array.
 ADJACENCYLIST REPRESENTATION look up translate image
 A representation of a directed graph with n vertices using an array of n lists of vertices. List i contains vertex j if there is an edge from vertex i to vertex j. A weighted graph may be represented with a list of vertex/weight pairs. An undirected graph may be represented by having vertex j in the list for vertex i and vertex i in the list for vertex j.
 ADJACENCYMATRIX REPRESENTATION look up translate image
 A representation of a directed graph with n vertices using an n × n matrix, where the entry at (i,j) is 1 if there is an edge from vertex i to vertex j; otherwise the entry is 0. A weighted graph may be represented using the weight as the entry. An undirected graph may be represented using the same entry in both (i,j) and (j,i) or using an upper triangular matrix.
 ADJACENT look up translate image
 Could not load http://xlinux.nist.gov/dads/HTML/adjacent.html
 ADMISSIBLE VERTEX look up translate image
 See the explanation at path system problem.
 ADVERSARY look up translate image
 A theoretical agent that uses information about the past moves of an online algorithm to choose inputs that force the worstcase cost of the algorithm.
 AHOCORASICK look up translate image
 A multiple string matching algorithm that constructs a finite state machine from a pattern (list of keywords), then uses the machine to locate all occurrences of the keywords in a body of text.
 ALGORITHM look up translate image
 A computable set of steps to achieve a desired result.
 ALGORITHM BSTW look up translate image
 (no definition here, yet, but you can help.)
 ALGORITHM FGK look up translate image
 An adaptive Huffman coding scheme. Coding is never much worse than twice optimal.
 ALL PAIRS SHORTEST PATH look up translate image
 Find the weight (or length) of the shortest paths between all pairs of vertices in a weighted, directed graph.
 ALL SIMPLE PATHS look up translate image
 Find all simple paths from a starting vertex (source) to a destination vertex (sink) in a directed graph. In an undirected graph, find all simple paths between two vertices.
 ALPHA SKIP SEARCH ALGORITHM look up translate image
 (no definition here, yet, but you can help.)
 ALPHABET look up translate image
 The set of all possible symbols in an application. For instance, input characters used by a finite state machine, letters making up strings in a language, or symbols in a pattern element. In some cases, an alphabet may be infinite.
 ALTERNATING PATH look up translate image
 A path with alternating free and matched edges.
 ALTERNATING TURING MACHINE look up translate image
 A nondeterministic Turing machine having universal states, from which the machine accepts only if all possible moves out of that state lead to acceptance.
 ALTERNATION look up translate image
 A model of computation proposed by A. K. Chandra, L. Stockmeyere, and D. Kozen, which has two kinds of states, AND and OR. The definition of accepting computation is adjusted accordingly.
 AMERICAN FLAG SORT look up translate image
 An efficient, inplace variant of radix sort that distributes items into hundreds of buckets. The first step counts the number of items in each bucket, and the second step computes where each bucket will start in the array. The last step cyclically permutes items to their proper bucket. Since the buckets are in order in the array, there is no collection step. The name comes by analogy with the Dutch national flag problem in the last step: efficiently partition the array into many "stripes". Using some efficiency techniques, it is twice as fast as quicksort for large sets of strings.
 AMORTIZED COST look up translate image
 The theoretical speed of a given set of operations. It is O(f(n)) when the execution time of the worst case of all sequences of n operations never exceeds O(n*f(n)).
 ANCESTOR look up translate image
 A parent of a node in a tree, the parent of the parent, etc.
 AND look up translate image
 Conjunction: 0 AND 0 = 0, 0 AND 1 = 0, 1 AND 0 = 0, 1 AND 1 = 1.
 ANSI look up translate image
 American National Standards Institute.
 ANTICHAIN look up translate image
 A subset of mutually incomparable elements in a poset.
 ANTISYMMETRIC look up translate image
 A binary relation R for which a R b and b R a implies a = b.
 APOSTOLICOCROCHEMORE look up translate image
 (no definition here, yet, but you can help.)
 APOSTOLICOGIANCARLO ALGORITHM look up translate image
 (no definition here, yet, but you can help.)
 APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM look up translate image
 An algorithm to solve an optimization problem that runs in polynomial time in the length of the input and outputs a solution that is guaranteed to be close to the optimal solution. "Close" has some welldefined sense called the performance guarantee.
 ARBORESCENCE look up translate image
 Informally, a directed tree.
 ARITHMETIC CODING look up translate image
 A minimal variablelength message coding based on the frequency of each character. The message is represented by a fraction which is the repeated offsetplusproduct reduction of the range (offset) and probability (product) of each character.
 ARRAY look up translate image
 An assemblage of items that are randomly accessible by integers, the index.
 ARRAY INDEX look up translate image
 The location of an item in an array.
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Created by 
admin 
Created on 
20120818 06:53:25 
Number of terms 
1100 
Last added 
ZPP by admin 20120818 07:16:54 
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