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ADAMS, JOHN  look up translate image
As the nation's second president, Adams had to deal with deteriorating relations between the United States and France. Conflicts between the two countries were evident in the XYZ Affair and the "Quasi-War" of 1798 to 1800.
ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS  look up translate image
Four acts passed in 1798 designed to curb criticism of the federal government. Adopted during a period of conflict with France, the acts lengthened the period before an immigrant could obtain citizenship, gave the president power to deport dangerous aliens, and provided for the prosecution of those who wrote "false, scandalous and malicious" writings against the U.S. government.
ALLIES  look up translate image
In World War I, the United States, Great Britain, France, and Russia, the alliance that opposed and defeated the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary and their allies; in World War II, primarily the United States, Great Britain, (free) France, and the Soviet Union that opposed and defeated the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM  look up translate image
Notion that America houses biologically superior people and can spread democracy to the rest of the world. An intellectual foundation of expansion and racism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR  look up translate image
A confederation of labor unions founded in 1886, it was composed mainly of skilled craft unions and was the first national labor organization to survive and experience a degree of success, largely because of its conservative leadership that accepted industrial capitalism.
AMERICAN SYSTEM (OF HENRY CLAY)  look up translate image
Henry Clay's program for the national economy, which included a protective tariff to stimulate industry, a national bank to provide credit, and federally funded internal improvements to expand the market for farm products.
AMERICAN SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION  look up translate image
The high cost of labor led to the establishment of a system of mass production through the manufacture of interchangeable parts.
ANACONDA PLAN  look up translate image
General Winfield Scott designed this strategic plan in the early days of the Civil War. to give direction to the Union war effort against the South. The plan advocated a full naval blockade of the South's coastline, a military campaign to gain control of the Mississippi River, and the placement of armies at key points in the South to squeeze-- like the Anaconda snake--the life out of the Confederacy. In various-ways, this plan helped inform overall Union strategy in militarily defeating the South.
ANTIFEDERALISTS  look up translate image
These were opponents of the Constitution of 1787 who sought to continue the confederation of sovereign states and to keep power as close as possible to the people. In actuality, the Antifederalists were true federalists in seeking to balance powers among the states and the national government. Their confused identity may have cost them support in attempting to prevent ratification of the Constitution. See Federalists.
ANTINOMIAN  look up translate image
Literally meaning against the laws of human governance. Antinomians believed that once they had earned saving grace, God would offer them direct revelation by which to order the steps of their lives. As such, human institutions, such as churches and government, were no longer necessary. Mainline Puritans believed Antinomianism would produce only social chaos and destroy the Bay Colony's mission, so they repudiated and even exiled prominent persons like Anne Hutchinson, who advocated such doctrines.
AXIS POWERS  look up translate image
In World War II, the alliance of German and Italy, and later Japan.
BANK OF THE UNITED STATES  look up translate image
A central bank, chartered by the federal government in 1791. Proposed by Alexander Hamilton, the bank collected taxes, held government funds, and regulated state banks. The bank's charter expired in 1811. A second Bank of the United States was created in 1816. See Second Bank of the United States.
BAY OF PIGS FIASCO  look up translate image
A plan to assassinate Cuban leader Fidel Castro and liberate Cuba with a trained military force of political exiles. The limited 1961 invasion was an unmitigated military failure and actually strengthened Castro's position in Cuba.
BEAT GENERATION  look up translate image
A cultural style and artistic movement of the 1950s that rejected traditional American family life and material values and celebrated African-American culture. They tapped an underground dissatisfaction with mainstream American culture.
BIG STICK DIPLOMACY  look up translate image
The proclaimed foreign policy of Theodore Roosevelt, it was based on the proverb, "Speak softly and carry a big stick," and advocated the threat of force to achieve the United States' goals, especially in the Western Hemisphere.
BILL OF RIGHTS  look up translate image
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which protect the rights of individuals from the powers of the national government. Congress and the states adopted the ten amendments in 1791.
BILLY YANK  look up translate image
This appellation was used to refer to common soldiers serving in Union armies during the Civil War. See Johnny Reb.
BIRDS OF PASSAGE  look up translate image
Immigrants who never intended to make the United States their home. Unable to make a living in their native countries, they came to America, worked and saved, and returned home. About 20 to 30 percent of immigrants returned home.
BLACK CODES  look up translate image
Laws passed by Southern state legislatures during Reconstruction, while Congress was out of session. These laws limited the rights of former slaves and led Congress to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
BLACK POWER  look up translate image
A rallying cry for more militant blacks advocated by younger leaders like Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown, beginning in the mid-1960s. It called for African Americans to form their own economic, political, and cultural institutions.
BLACK TUESDAY  look up translate image
October 29,1929, the day of the stock market crash that initiated the Great Depression.
BONUS ARMY  look up translate image
Group of unemployed World War I veterans who marched on Washington, D.C., in June 1932 to ask for immediate payment of their war pensions.
BRAIN TRUST  look up translate image
Close advisors to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during the early days of his first term whose policy suggestions influenced much New Deal legislation.
BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA  look up translate image
Supreme Court decision of 1954 that overturned the "separate but equal doctrine" that justified Jim Crow laws. Chief Justice Earl Warren argued that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
BURR, AARON  look up translate image
Thomas Jefferson's first vice president, who killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1804.
CABINET  look up translate image
This term refers to the heads of the executive departments.
CALHOUN, JOHN C.  look up translate image
As vice president, Calhoun anonymously expounded the doctrine of nullification, which held that states could prevent the enforcement of a federal law within their boundaries.
CALVINISM  look up translate image
Broadly influential Protestant theology emanating from the French theologian John Calvin, who fled to Switzerland, where he reordered life in the community of Geneva according to his conception of the Bible. Calvinism emphasized the power and omnipotence of God and the importance of seeking to earn saving grace and salvation, even though God had already determined (the concept of predestination) who would be eternally saved or damned.
CAMP DAVID ACCORDS  look up translate image
An historic 1979 peace agreement negotiated between Egypt and Israel at the U.S. presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland. Under the pact, Israel agreed to return captured territory to Egypt and to negotiate Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT  look up translate image
During the early nineteenth century, a movement arose to end the death penalty.
CARPETBAGGERS  look up translate image
People who moved to the South during or following the Civil War and became active in politics, they helped to bring Republican control of southern state governments during Reconstruction and were bitterly resented by most white Southerners.
CARTER, JIMMY  look up translate image
Georgia governor in 1970, and president in 1976. His progressive racial views reflected an emergent South less concerned with racial distinctions and more concerned with economic development and political power.
CAUTIOUS REVOLUTIONARIES  look up translate image
Sometimes called reluctant revolutionaries, these leaders lacked a strong trust in the people to rise above their own self-interest and provide for enlightened legislative policies (see public virtue). At the time of the American Revolution, they argued in favor of forms of government that could easily check the popular will. To assure political stability, they believed that political decision making should be in the hands of society's proven social and economic elite. John Dickinson, John Adams...(more)
CENTRAL POWERS  look up translate image
In World War I, Germany and Austria-Hungary and their allies.
CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY  look up translate image
America's leading exponent of religious liberalism, Channing was one of the founders of American Unitarianism.
CITY UPON A HILL  look up translate image
Phrase from John Winthrop's sermon, "A Model of Christian Charity," in which he challenged his fellow Puritans to build a model, ideal community in America that would serve as an example of how the rest of the world should order its existence. Here was the beginning of the idea of America as a special, indeed exceptional society, therefore worthy of emulation by others. The concept of American exceptionalism has dominated American history and culture down to the present.
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964  look up translate image
Landmark legislation that prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin in employment and public facilities such as hotels, restaurants, and playgrounds. It established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
CLAY, HENRY  look up translate image
As Speaker of the House of Representatives, Senator, and unsuccessful candidate for the presidency, he was an advocate of the "American System," which called for a protective tariff, a national bank, and federally funded internal improvements. See American system (of Henry Clay).
COLONIZATION  look up translate image
The effort to encourage masters to voluntarily emancipate their slaves and to resettle free blacks in Africa.
COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE  look up translate image
The process of transferring plants, animals, foods, diseases, wealth, and culture between Europe and the Americas, beginning at the time of Christopher Columbus and continuing throughout the era of exploration and expansion. The exchange often resulted in the devastation of Native American peoples and cultures, so much so that the process is sometimes referred to as the "Columbian collision."
COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION (CPI)  look up translate image
U.S. propaganda agency of World War I.
COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE  look up translate image
As American leaders became increasingly anxious about a perceived British imperial conspiracy to deprive them of their liberties, they set up networks of communication among the colonies. Beginning in 1773 colonial assemblies began to appoint committees of correspondence to warn each other about possible abuses. In some colonies, such as Massachusetts, local communities also organized such committees, all with the intention of being vigilant against arbitrary acts from British officials.
COMMON SENSE  look up translate image
This best-selling pamphlet by Thomas Paine, first published in 1776, denounced the British monarchy, called for American independence, and encouraged the adoption of republican forms of government. Paine's bold words thus helped crack the power of reconciliationist leaders in the Second Continental Congress who did not believe the colonies could stand up to British arms and survive as an independent nation.
COMPROMISE OF 1877  look up translate image
A bargain made between southern Democrats and Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes after the disputed presidential election of 1876. The southern Democrats pledged to let Hayes take office in return for his promise to withdraw the remaining federal troops from the southern states. The removal of the last troops in 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction.
CONEY ISLAND  look up translate image
Popular site of New York amusement parks opening in 1890s, attracting working class Americans with rides and games celebrating abandon and instant gratification.
COPPERHEADS  look up translate image
Not every person living in the North during the Civil War favored making war against the Confederacy. Such persons came to be identified as Copperheads. Often affiliated with the Democratic party and residing in the Midwest, Copperheads favored a negotiated peace settlement that would allow the South to leave the Union. Some of them were arbitrarily thrown into jail without proper habeas corpus proceedings after publicly advocating their views.
COURT PACKING  look up translate image
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's controversial plan to appoint Supreme Court justices who were sympathetic to his views, by offering retirement benefits to the sitting justices.
COVERTURE COVERTURE  look up translate image
Coverture Coverture is closely connected with patriarchy because this concept contends that the legal identity of women is subordinated first in their fathers and, then, in their husbands, as the sanctioned heads of households. See patriarchal.
COXEY'S ARRNY  look up translate image
A movement founded by Jacob S. Coxey to help the unemployed during the depression of the 1890s, it brought out-of-work people to Washington, D.C., to demand that the federal government provide jobs and inflate the currency.
CRANDALL, PRUDENCE  look up translate image
A Quaker schoolteacher, Crandall sparked controversy when she opened a school for the education of free blacks.
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Glossary of American History
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Created by admin
Created on 2012-08-18 18:45:58
Number of terms 324
Last added Zimmermann Telegram by admin
2012-08-18 18:48:16
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