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ADMINISTRATORS AND MANAGERS  look up translate image
Includes legislators, senior government administrators, traditional chiefs and heads of villages and administrators of special interest organizations. It also includes corporate managers such as chief executives and general managers as well as specialized managers and managing supervisors, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-1968).
BANK AND TRADE-RELATED LENDING  look up translate image
Covers commercial bank lending and other private credit.
BUDGET DEFICIT OR SURPLUS  look up translate image
Central government current and capital revenue and official grants received, less total expenditure and lending minus repayments.
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) EMISSIONS  look up translate image
Anthropogenic (human-originated) carbon dioxide emissions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the production of cement. Emissions are calculated from data on the consumption of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and gas flaring.
CHILDREN REACHING GRADE 5  look up translate image
The percentage of children starting primary school who eventually attain grade 5 (grade 4 if the duration of primary school is four years). The estimate is based on the Reconstructed Cohort Method, which uses data on enrollment and repeaters for two consecutive years.
CIGARETTE CONSUMPTION PER ADULT  look up translate image
The sum of production and imports minus exports of cigarettes divided by the population aged 15 years and older.
COMMERCIAL ENERGY USE  look up translate image
The domestic primary commercial energy supply. It is calculated as local production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and international marine bunkers.
CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE  look up translate image
The percentage of married women of child-bearing age (1549) who are using, or whose husbands are using, any form of contraception, whether modern or traditional.
CONVERGENCE  look up translate image
A narrowing over time of the gap between countries for a particular indicator.
COUNTRY  look up translate image
A shorthand term used to refer to countries or territories, including provinces and special administrative regions that directly report data to international statistical agencies.
CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE  look up translate image
The difference between (a) exports of goods and services as well as inflows of unrequited transfers but exclusive of foreign aid and (b) imports of goods and services as well as all unrequited transfers to the rest of the world.
DAILY PER CAPITA CALORIE SUPPLY  look up translate image
The calorie equivalent of the net food supply (local production plus imports minus exports) in a country, divided by the population, per day.
DEFORESTATION  look up translate image
The permanent clearing of forestland for all agricultural uses and for settlements. It does not include other alterations such as selective logging.
DEPENDENCY RATIO  look up translate image
The ratio of the population defined as dependentthose under 15 and over 65to the working-age population, aged 1564.
DEVELOPED / DEVELOPING  look up translate image
Countries in the very high HDI category (see below) are referred to as developed, and countries not in this group are referred to as developing. The terms are used for convenience only, to distinguish countries that have attained the highest HDI levels.
DEVIATION FROM FIT  look up translate image
A measure of progress that captures changes in a countrys indicators relative to the average change for countries starting from the same point.
DISABILITY  look up translate image
A restriction or lack of ability (resulting from impairment) to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. Impairment is defined as any loss of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure and function.
DISBURSEMENT  look up translate image
Records the actual international transfer of financial resources or of goods or services, valued at the cost to the donor.
DISCOURAGED WORKERS  look up translate image
Individuals who would like to work and are available for work, but are not actively seeking it because of a stated belief that no suitable job is available or because they do not know where to get jobs.
DOCTORS  look up translate image
Physicians and all graduates of any faculty or school of medicine in any medical field (including practice, teaching, administration and research).
All men or women who supply labor for the production of economic goods and services during a specified period.
EDUCATION EXPENDITURE  look up translate image
Expenditure on the provision, management, inspection and support of pre- primary, primary and secondary schools; universities and colleges; vocational, technical and other training institutions; and general administration and subsidiary services.
ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION  look up translate image
The production of heat and power plants less own use and distribution losses.
ENROLMENT  look up translate image
The gross enrolment ratio is the number of students enrolled in a level of education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of official school age for that level. The net enrolment ratio is the number of children of official school age (as defined by the education system) enrolled in school as a percentage of the number of children of official school age in the population.
EXPORTS OF GOODS AND SERVICES  look up translate image
The value of all goods and non-factor services provided to the rest of the world, including merchandise freight, insurance, travel and other non-factor services.
EXTERNAL DEBT  look up translate image
Debt owed by a country to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods or services.
FOOD AID IN CEREALS  look up translate image
The quantity of cereals provided by donor countries and international organizations, including the World Food Programme and the International Wheat Council, as reported for a crop year.
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT  look up translate image
An investment in a country involving a long-term relationship and control of an enterprise by non-residents. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments.
FRESH WATER WITHDRAWALS  look up translate image
Total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source of water withdrawals.
GENDER INEQUALITY INDEX (GII)  look up translate image
A measure that captures the loss in achievements due to gender disparities in the dimensions of reproductive health, empowerment and labour force participation. Values range from 0 (perfect equality) to 1 (total inequality).
GINI COEFFICIENT  look up translate image
Measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditures) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. The coefficient ranges from 0 -meaning perfect equality -to 1- complete inequality.
GOVERNMENT CONSUMPTION  look up translate image
Includes all current expenditures for purchases of goods and services by all levels of government, excluding most government enterprises.
GROSS DOMESTIC INVESTMENT  look up translate image
Outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories.
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)  look up translate image
The total output of goods and services for final use produced by an economy by both residents and non-residents, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims. It does not include deductions for depreciation of physical capital or depletion and degradation of natural resources.
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP)  look up translate image
Comprises GDP plus net factor income from abroad, which is the income residents receive from abroad for factor ser- vices (labour and capital), less similar payments made to non-residents who contribute to the domestic economy.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT  look up translate image
Human development is a process of enlarging peoples choices. Enlarging peoples choices is achieved by expanding human capabilities and functionings. At all levels of development the three essential capabilities for human development are for people to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable and to have a decent standard of living. If these basic capabilities are not achieved, many choices are simply not available and many opportunities remain inaccessible. But the realm of human development...(more)
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI)  look up translate image
A composite measure of achievements in three basic dimensions of human developmenta long and healthy life, access to education and a decent standard of living. For ease of comparability, the average value of achievements in these three dimensions is put on a scale of 0 to 1, where greater is better, and these indicators are aggregated using geometric means (see box 1.2 in chapter 1 of the Human Development Report 2010).
HYBRID HDI  look up translate image
HDI calculated using the new functional form described in chapter 1 of the 2010 Human Development Report and the indicators used up through the 2009 Report: life expectancy, literacy rate, gross enrolment and per capita GDP. For reasons that include greater data availability, this method is more suitable to the exploration of long-term trends presented in chapters 2 and 3 of the 2010 Report.
IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE  look up translate image
The percentage of children under one year of age receiving antigens used in the Universal Child Immunization (UCI) Programme.
INCOME OR EXPENDITURE SHARE  look up translate image
The distribution of income or expenditure accruing to percentile groups of households ranked by total household income, per capita income or expenditure.
INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HDI (IHDI)  look up translate image
A measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account. It captures the HDI of the average person in society, which is less than the aggregate HDI when there is inequality in the distribution of health, education and income. Under perfect equality, the HDI and IHDI are equal; the greater the difference between the two, the greater the inequality.
INFANT MORTALITY RATE  look up translate image
The probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age times 1,000.
INFANTS WITH LOW BIRTH-WEIGHT  look up translate image
The percentage of babies born weighing less than 2,500 grams.
INFLATION  look up translate image
A fall in the purchasing power of money reflected in a persistent increase in the general level of prices as generally measured by the retail price index.
INTERNET HOST  look up translate image
A computer system connected to the Internet-either a single terminal directly connected, or a computer that allows multiple users to access network services through it.
LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH  look up translate image
The number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of birth were to stay the same throughout the childs life.
LITERACY RATE (ADULT)  look up translate image
The percentage of people aged 15 and above who can, with understanding, both read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.
MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE  look up translate image
The annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.
MILITARY EXPENDITURE  look up translate image
All expenditure of the defence ministry and other ministries on recruiting and training of military personnel as well as construction and the purchase of military supplies and equipment. Military assistance is included in the expenditures of the donor country.
A measure of serious deprivations in the dimensions of health, education and living standards that combines the number of deprived and the intensity of their deprivation.
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Glossary of Human development terms
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Created on 2012-08-19 09:05:36
Number of terms 84
Last added Waste recycling by admin
2012-08-19 09:06:15
  • Human Development | Glossary | Human Development Reports (HDR) | United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
    The Human Development Report (HDR) was first launched in 1990 with the single goal of putting people back at the center of the development process in terms of economic debate, policy and advocacy. Since the first report, four new composite indices for human development have been developed — the human development index, the gender-related development index, the gender empowerment measure, and the human poverty index. Each report focuses on a highly topical theme in the current development debate, providing path-breaking analysis and policy recommendations.