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A theory of organizational decision makingapplicable to organizations where goals are unclear, technologies are imperfectly understood, histories are difficult to interpret, and participants wander in and out; such "organized anarchies" operate under conditions of pervasive ambiguity, with so much uncertainty in the decision making process that traditional theories about coping with uncertainty do not apply.
ABILITY TO PAY  look up translate image
The principle of taxation that holds that the tax burden should be distributedaccording to a person's wealth. It is based on the assumption that, as a person's income increases, the person or corporation can and should contribute a larger percentage of income to support government activities. The progressive income tax is based on the ability to pay principle.
ABSOLUTISM  look up translate image
A government with no limits to its power and under which the people have noguaranteed or constitutional rights.
ABUSE  look up translate image
1. The use of an existing authority for purposes that extend beyond or even contradict theintentions of the grantors of that authority. 2. The furnishing of excessive services to beneficiaries of government programs, violating program regulations, or performing improper practices, none of which involves prosecutable fraud.
ACCESS  look up translate image
1. The ability to gain the attention and to influence the decisions of key political agents.Political party leaders, the heads of major interest groups, and those who make large campaign contributions are typically said to have access. 2. Lobbying; getting information to key decision makers at critical times.
ACCLAMATION  look up translate image
Overwhelming approval by voice vote.
ACCOUNTABILITY  look up translate image
A political principle according to which agencies or organizations, such asthose in government, are subject to some form of external control, causing them to give a general accounting of and for their actions; an essential concept in democratic public administration.
ACCOUNTING  look up translate image
The process of classifying, measuring, and interpreting financial transactions.Cash accounting is the recording of transactions at the time the payment is actually made; accrual accounting means that revenues are recorded when they are earned and expenses are recorded as they are incurred.
ACT  look up translate image
A written bill formally passed by a legislature, such as the U.S. Congress, and signed by anexecutive, such as the U.S. president. An act is a bill from its introduction until its passage by a legislature. An act becomes a law; becomes a formal statute, when it is signed by (or passed over the veto of) a chief executive, such as the U.S. president. 2. A bill that has been passed by only one house of a legislature.
ACT OF CONGRESS  look up translate image
A statute; a law passed by the U.S. Congress and signed (or passed over theveto of) the president. All of the acts passed by the Congress are published, in chronological order according to term and session of Congress in the U.S. Statutes-at-Large. The statutes are organized by subject in the U.S. Code.
ACT OF STATE  look up translate image
The judicial policy that a court in one nation should not rule on the legality of theinternal acts of a foreign country.
ACTING  look up translate image
Temporary. For example, someone might be the acting director of a government agency.Acting appointments are sometimes automatic, as when a lieutenant governor is the acting governor whenever the elected governor leaves the state.
ACTIVIST  look up translate image
One who is seriously and passionately involved in politics by running for office,mobilizing support for issues, participating in campaigns, and so on.
AD HOC  look up translate image
A Latin term meaning temporarily; for this one time. It is sometimes used to criticizedmethods that substitute for standard procedures.
AD INTERIM  look up translate image
A Latin term meaning in the meantime. A public official is ad interim when servingthe unexpired term of a predecessor (who has died, resigned, or been removed) until a permanent official can be appointed or elected.
AD VALOREM TAXES  look up translate image
Those levied as a percentage of product price.
ADJOURNMENT  look up translate image
The putting off of a business to another time or place; the decision of a court,legislature, or other group to stop meeting either temporarily or permanently.
ADJOURNMENT SINE DIE  look up translate image
The adjournment of a legislature that does not fix a day forreconvening. (Sine die is a Latin term meaning without a day.) It is used to indicate the final adjournment of a session of the Congress or of a state legislature.
ADJUDICATION  look up translate image
1. The resolution of a dispute by means of judicial or quasi-judicial processingin which the parties are able to present evidence and reasoned arguments. 2. The formal pronouncing and recording of the decisions of a court or quasi-judicial entity.
ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME  look up translate image
An income tax term referring to the money a person earns minusallowable deductions for certain expenses for travel, work, business, moving, etc.
ADMINISTERED PRICES  look up translate image
Prices determined by other than market forces such as those set bymonopolies, cartels, or governments.
ADMINISTRATION  look up translate image
1. The management and direction of the affairs of governments andinstitutions. 2. A collective term for all policy making officials of a government. 3. The execution and implementation of public policy. 4. The time in office of a chief executive such as a president, governor, or mayor. 5. The supervision of the estate of a dead person to pay taxes and assign assets to heirs.
That aspect of administrative responsibility by whichofficials are held answerable for general notions of democracy and morality as well as for specific legal mandates.
ADMINISTRATIVE ADVOCACY  look up translate image
The presentation of alternative policies to an administrativeagency. This practice recognizes that public administration is a highly political process involving significant differences of judgement. The most feasible course of action often emerges from the competition produced when each interested group pleads the case it presents, whether that cause be more funds to carry out agency policies, the survival of a particular program, or the desire for a more efficient system of administrative decision making.
ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCY  look up translate image
1. A government organization set up to implement a law. 2. Anycivilian government body (board, bureau, department, or individual), other than a court or legislature, that deals with the rights of private parties by adjudication, rule making, investigation, prosecuting, and so on.
Costs related to administering the tax system.
ADMINISTRATIVE DISCRETION  look up translate image
The ability of individual administrators in a bureaucracy tomake significant choices affecting management and operation of programs for which they are responsible; particularly evident in separation-of-powers systems.
ADMINISTRATIVE DUE PROCESS  look up translate image
Term encompassing a number of points in administrativelaw that require that the administrative procedures of government agencies and regulatory commissions, as they affect private parties, be based upon written guidelines that safeguard individual rights and protect against the arbitrary or inequitable exercise of government authority.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW  look up translate image
1. That branch of law concerned with the procedures by whichadministrative agencies make rules and adjudicate cases; the conditions under which these actions can be reviewed by courts. 2. The legislation that creates administrative agencies. 3. The rules and regulations promulgated by administrative agencies. 4. The law governing judicial review of administrative actions.
ADMINISTRATIVE MORALITY  look up translate image
The use of ethical, political, or social precepts to createstandards by which the quality of public administration may be judged; such as the standards of honesty, responsiveness, efficiency effectiveness, competence, effect on individual rights, adherence to democratic procedures, and social equity.
ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER  look up translate image
A directive carrying the force of law issued by an administrativeagency after adjudication.
ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDY  look up translate image
A means of enforcing a right by going to an administrativeagency either for help or for a decision. People are often required to exhaust all administrative remedies by submitting their problems to the proper agency before taking their cases to court.
ADMINISTRATOR  look up translate image
1. A manager. 2. The head of a government agency. 3. Someone appointed bya court to handle a deceased person's estate. 4. Anyone with fiduciary responsibility.
ADVERSE OR DISPARATE IMPACT  look up translate image
Criterion for showing that employment practices affectone group more harshly than another.
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PLAN  look up translate image
An organization's written plan to remedy past discriminationagainst, or underutilization of, women and minorities. The plan itself usually consists of a statement of goals, timetables for achieving them, and specific program efforts.
AGENCY  look up translate image
1. Any department, office, commission, authority, administration, board, government-owned corporation, or other independent establishment of any branch of government in the United States. 2. A formal relation whereby one person is authorized to act for another.
AGENCY MISSION  look up translate image
Responsibility assigned to a specific agency and its components, in terms ofthe purpose served.
AGENDA SETTING  look up translate image
1. The process of deciding what issues will be considered at a formalmeeting. 2. The process by which ideas or issues come up through the various political processes to wind up on the agenda of a political institution, such as a legislature or court. The process makes extensive use of the mass media to take a relatively unknown or unsupported issue and through publicity expand the numbers who care about the issue, so an institution whether it be city hall or the U.S. Congress, is forced to take some action.
ALLOCATION FUNCTION  look up translate image
The shifting of resources into preferred (and out of non-preferred)areas.
ALLOCATIONAL EFFECTS  look up translate image
The ways in which policies influence of the use of resources.
ALTERNATIVE MINIMUM TAX (AMT)  look up translate image
The lease possible legal amount that must be paid byhigh-income taxpayers.
AMENDMENT  look up translate image
1. A change in a prior law by the enactment of a new law. 2. A change in a billduring its time of consideration in a legislature. 3. A provision of a constitution adopted since its original ratification.
AMICUS CURIAE  look up translate image
A Latin term for friend of the court; any person or organization allowed toparticipate in a lawsuit who would not otherwise have a right to do so. Participation is usually limited to filing a brief on behalf of one side or the other.
ANARCHISM  look up translate image
The belief that government and its administrative institutions are intrinsically eviland should be abolished (typically by violence) so they can be replaced by arrangements not corrupted by exploitative and oppressive governments.
APOLITICAL  look up translate image
1. Outside of politics; not concerned with political dominance; apathetic towardvoting or politics. 2. Nonpartisan; not affiliated with a political party.
APPEAL  look up translate image
1. Any proceeding or request to a higher authority that a lower authority's decision bereviewed. 2. A formal request to a higher court that it review the actions of a lower court. 3. A challenge to a ruling made by a presiding officer of a legislature. If the challenge is supported by a majority vote of the legislators, the initial ruling is overridden.
APPOINTMENT  look up translate image
A non-elected government job. Most jurisdictions offer several kinds ofappointments. A noncompetitive appointment is government employment obtained without competing with others, in the sense that is done without regard to civil service registers.
APPORTIONMENT  look up translate image
Process by which funds are allocated to agencies for specific portion of theyear.
APPROPRIATION  look up translate image
1. Funds set aside by a legislature to pay for something authorized by law.
AUTHORITY  look up translate image
Power defined according to a legal and institutional framework, and vested in aformal structure (a nation, organization, profession); power exercised through recognized, legitimate channels.
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Glossary of Public Administration terms
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Created by admin
Created on 2012-08-19 18:10:50
Number of terms 269
Last added ZERO-BASE BUDGETING by admin
2012-08-19 18:15:17