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Items 1→50 of 411. Page 1 of 9.
- ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE look up translate image
- An actor has an absolute advantage in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service with fewer resources than other actors.
- ACCESSION look up translate image
- The procedure by which a nation becomes a party to an agreement already in force between other nations
- ACCORDS look up translate image
- International agreements originally thought to be for lesser subjects than covered by treaties , but now really treaties by a different name.
- ACCREDITED look up translate image
- When a diplomatic mission based in one country is the concurrent representative to two or more countries
- ACCURACY look up translate image
- One of qualities which we can use in evaluating and comparing theories, referring to the probability that the theory will provide the correct answer.
- ACTION look up translate image
- A physical act, a concrete step in a given situation. An action is the practical expression of a policy.
- ACTOR look up translate image
- A Participant or player.
- AD REFERENDUM look up translate image
- An agreement reached ad referendum means an agreement reached by negotiators at the table, subject to the subsequent concurrence of their governments.
- AD VALOREM TARIFF look up translate image
- A tariff where the duty charged is a proportion of the value of the good (e.g. five percent of the good’s declared value).
- ADJUSTABLE PEG look up translate image
- A type of exchange rate regime where rates are fixed, but countries retain the right to change rates whenever they see fit. See exchange rate.
- AER look up translate image
- Assembly of European Regions was created in 1985 and it is the political organization of the regions of Europe. It represents the interests of the regions at the European and international level. The AER has 250 member regions from 25 states and 12 member interregional organizations.
- AGRÉMENT look up translate image
- Diplomatic courtesy requires that before a state appoints a new chief of diplomatic mission to represent it in another state, it must be first ascertained whether the proposed appointee is acceptable to the receiving state. The acquiescence of the receiving state is signified by its granting its agrément to the appointment. It is unusual for an agrément to be refused, but it occasionally happens.
- AIDE MÉMOIRE look up translate image
- A written summary of the key points made by a diplomat in an official conversation. Literally, a document left with the other party to the conversation, either at the time of the conversation or subsequently, as an aid to memory.
- AIDE MEMOIRE look up translate image
- A written summary of the key points made by a diplomat in an official conversation. Literally, a document left with the other party to the conversation, either at the time of the conversation or subsequently, as an aid to memory
- ALTERNAT look up translate image
- When an agreement is signed between two states, or among several states, each signatory keeps an official copy for itself. Alternat refers to the principle which provides that a state’s own name will be listed ahead of the other signatory, or signatories, in its own official copy. It is a practice devised centuries ago to handle sensitivities over precedence.
- AMBASSADOR look up translate image
- A diplomat or an official envoy accredited to a foreign government as the official resident representative of his/her own government; or an official appointed for a special, usually temporary, diplomatic assignment. In Commonwealth countries the senior diplomatic representatives of other Commonwealth countries are called high commissioners
- AMBASSADOR EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY look up translate image
- The chief of a diplomatic mission; the ranking official diplomatic representative of his country to the country to which he is accredited, and the personal representative of his own head of state to the head of state of the host country. The term "extraordinary" has no real meaning. Years ago it was given only to nonresident ambassadors on temporary missions and was used to distinguish them from regular resident ambassadors. The latter resented others having this appellation, as it seemed to imply...(more)
- AMBASSADOR-DESIGNATE look up translate image
- An official who has been named to be an ambassador, but who has not yet taken his oath of office.
- AMBASSADRESS look up translate image
- A term often used to denote the wife of an ambassador, and misused to denote a woman chief of mission. The latter is an ambassador, not an ambassadress.
- ANARCHY look up translate image
- implies not the complete chaos or absence of structure or rules, but rather than lack a of a central government that can enforce rules
- ANDEAN COMMUNITY/ ANDEAN INTEGRATION SYSTEM look up translate image
- A political and economic regional organization made up of Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. The Andean Pact was signed in 1969, with the aim of creating a customs union, which is since 1995 operational. The Andean Group pledged to establish a Common Market in 2005. The Andean Community started operating in 1997.
- ANZCERTA look up translate image
- Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (CER Agreement) entered into force in 1983 with the aim to create a Free Trade Area between Australia and New Zealand.
- APC NETWORK look up translate image
- Association for Progressive Communications comprises more than 20,000 subscribers to electronic listservers in 95 countries, and have recently been very much involved in agitating for global development and democratization of the United Nations
- APT (ASEAN PLUS THREE) look up translate image
- A regional forum, which brings together the 10 ASEAN states plus China, Japan and Korea.
- ARF look up translate image
- ASEAN Regional Forum was established in 1994 and links together 22 countries plus the EU, which have an impact on are involved in the security of the Asia Pacific Region. These countries are Australia, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, China, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, the EU, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam.
- ASEAN look up translate image
- Association of Southeast Asian Nations is an international organisation, which was established in 1967 and currently brings together ten Southeast Asian states: Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
- ASSUMPTION look up translate image
- The basic starting point for a causal theory. Something assumed to be true; a simplification, used to bring clarity to a complex situation or relationship.
- ASYLUM look up translate image
- Used in diplomacy to mean the giving of refuge in two senses: first, within the extraterritorial grounds of an embassy (not generally done in American embassies); and second, when one states allows someone to live within its borders, out of reach of the authority of a second state from which the person seeks protection.
- ATTACHÉ look up translate image
- Civilian attachés are either junior officers in an embassy or, if more senior, officers who have a professional specialization such as "labor attaché", "commercial attaché", "cultural attaché", etc. On the military side, an embassy will generally have either an army attaché, naval attaché, or air attaché – and often all three. In American embassies, the senior of the three is called the defense attaché and is in charge of all military attaché activities. These consist largely of liaison work with local military authorities and of keeping informed on host country order of battle.
- AUTARKY look up translate image
- A situation where there are no international economic transactions taking place.
- BAG, THE look up translate image
- See "Pouch". Bag is the British term. "Bag Day" is the day the pouch is sealed and sent to the home office. Hence, bag day is the day when all non-telegraphic reporting must be finalized and dispatched.
- BALANCE OF PAYMENTS look up translate image
- A nation’s accounting records, which tracks its international economic transactions.
- BALANCE OF PAYMENTS ADJUSTMENT look up translate image
- This refers to the way in which states settle their bills.
- BALANCE OF PAYMENTS DEFICIT look up translate image
- a state spends more than it receives from other countries
- BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SURPLUS look up translate image
- a state receives more than it spends in other countries
- BALANCE OF POWER look up translate image
- A term with many meanings, it usually refers to either any distribution of power (it doesn’t matter if power is evenly distributed or not), or a perfectly even distribution of power.
- BARGAINING POWER look up translate image
- the general capacity of a state to control the behaviour of others, power to cause another actor to do an action (also see structural power)
- BEGGAR-THY-NEIGHBOR POLICY look up translate image
- A policy intended to transfer unemployment problems from one country to another via protectionism.
- BEHAVIORALISTS look up translate image
- Those who believe that the proper way to construct and to test theories involves making many observations of variables, aggregating the information, and applying methods of data analysis (statistics) to interpret the evidence. This view is contrasted with that of the Traditionalists.
- BELIEF-SYSTEMS look up translate image
- A set of beliefs about how the world works, and/or how it ought to work. See ideology.
- BELLIGERENCY look up translate image
- A state of belligerency is a state of armed conflict. Belligerents are direct participants in the conflict.
- BELLIGERENT look up translate image
- A nation in a state of war or hostilities.
- BILATERAL look up translate image
- Bilateral discussions or negotiations are between a state and one other. A bilateral treaty is between one state and one other. "Multilateral" is used when more than two states are involved.
- BIODIVERSITY look up translate image
- two kinds: species and genetic diversity, species diversity refers to the differences between species, while genetic diversity refers to differences within species
- BIPOLAR look up translate image
- One of several different possible distributions of power; in this case, a distribution where two states or alliances have power concentrated in their control.
- BIPOLARITY look up translate image
- When the power is distributed between two poles, for instance the international political system under the Cold War was considered to have a bipolar structure: the United States and the former Soviet Union.
- BOLSTERING look up translate image
- Bolstering occurs when a decision-maker stops engaging in the broad search for information and instead of exploring the full range of policy options, merely searchs for information that supports the choice he or she has already made.
- BOUT DE PAPIER look up translate image
- A very informal means of conveying written information; more informal than an aide mémoire or a memorandum.
- BREAKING RELATIONS look up translate image
- The formal act of severing diplomatic relations with another state to underscore disapproval of its actions or policies. It is generally an unwise step, because when relations between states are most strained is when the maintaining of diplomatic relations is most important. It makes little sense to keep diplomats on the scene when things are going relatively well and then take them away when they are most needed. An intermediate step which indicates serious displeasure but stops short of an actual...(more)
- BREZHNEV DOCTRINE look up translate image
- reinforced the right of the Soviets to ntervene where Moscow deemed socialism was threatened by "counter-revolutionary forces"
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