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ADJUSTABLE SHOCK ABSORBERS  look up translate image
Rear shock absorbers that provide load leveling without a host of moving parts or an on board air compressor Internal shock valving senses ride height and uses energy from the vehicle's motion to increase hydraulic pressure and raise the shock to the desired ride level As the vehicle is driven, the shocks quickly "pump up" to the necessary pressure, and the vehicle's original ride level is restored
AERODYNAMIC DRAG  look up translate image
Drag or resistance produced by a moving object, such as a motor vehicle, as it displaces the air in its path Usually measured in pounds, aerodynamic drag increases in proportion to an object's frontal area, drag coefficient and the square of its speed
AIR DAM  look up translate image
Soft, lower body extension attached below the front bumper improving vehicle performance by limiting the amount of airflow directed under the vehicle Improves aerodynamics and redirects the airflow to the engine compartment for improved engine cooling or air conditioning performance Assists in reducing aerodynamic lift, turbulence and drag
AIR DRYER  look up translate image
A component of the air conditioning system Condenses and filters moisture and contaminants from pressurized air from the air compressor Most air dryers use a drying agent known as a desiccant to remove moisture from the air Moisture is automatically expelled when the compressor unloads
AIR SUSPENSION SEAT  look up translate image
Single seat, either driver or passenger, which incorporates an air-activated suspension system to help eliminate the jolts and bounces of the truck cab Note: Normally air suspension seats require that the truck be equipped with air brakes to supply air to the seat Some seats feature an integral air compressor so the occupant can energize the seat on vehicles that are not equipped with air brakes
AIR/FUEL MIXTURE  look up translate image
The measure or ratio of the amounts of air and fuel being fed to the engine's cylinders. The power train control module (PCM) computer adjusts the air/fuel mixture to provide the best combination of performance and fuel efficiency A higher percentage of fuel to air is described as a rich mixture, while a lower percentage of fuel to air is termed a lean mixture On Ford vehicles, the air/fuel mixture is measured by an electronic sensor that provides input to the power train control module systems
AIRBAG  look up translate image
During a moderate-to-severe frontal impact, the airbag is designed to inflate in approximately 1/20th of a second (less time than it takes to blink an eye) and begins to deflate immediately thereafter. In that brief period, the airbag can help reduce the risk of injury to the head and chest of the driver and/or the right front seat passenger Electronic diagnostic module continuously monitors the airbag for proper operation When the ignition switch is turned to the ON position, the airbag indicator...(more)
ALL-WHEEL DRIVE (AWD)  look up translate image
Continuously monitors wheel speed, throttle position and steering-wheel angle sensors to determine the vehicle's conditions and driver's intent. The system then determines the optimal amount of front and rear torque for the given conditions to not only reduce wheel slip but to prevent the slip from occurring in the first place Helps ensure the vehicle will be sure-footed on the road in a variety of conditions, such as fast cornering, uneven pavement, potholes, slippery surfaces and anything that...(more)
ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (ALSO SEE E85 VEHICLES AND FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLE {FFV})  look up translate image
Refers to any type of vehicle that uses nontraditional fuel or power sources: Methanol/Ethanol Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Propane Electricity (as in Escape Hybrid)
ALTERNATOR  look up translate image
Engine-driven device that converts mechanical energy into alternating electrical current Provides power to run all of the vehicle's electrical components when the engine is running Single or dual heavy-duty alternators that provide additional charging capacity are also available for applications such as cold-climate operation (temperatures below -20oF) where battery drain and accessory use are typically very high, and vehicles are equipped for towing purposes
ALTERNATOR CAPACITY  look up translate image
To determine minimum capacity for an alternator: Minimum alternator output = Total load x 1.20, where total load comprises continuous night-winter load Add 20 percent (.20) to accommodate anticipated intermittent load In most cases, a 2.51:1 or better alternator drive ratio will provide a reasonably adequate system output
AMBIENT INTERIOR LIGHTING  look up translate image
Utilizes Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lights to illuminate the vehicle interior: foot wells, cup holders, and controls, depending upon the vehicle Offers the ability to change color to suit your mood. Color selections include aqua, blue, green, purple, red, yellow or white lighting
ANTI-THEFT SYSTEMS  look up translate image
Perimeter anti-theft alarm system Guards the vehicle's doors, hood and trunk/lift gate. When an unauthorized entry occurs, the system trigger sand will: Flash the head lamps, parking lamps and theft-indicator lamp on the instrument panel Sound the horn. Note: It will not be triggered by breaking glass or entry into the vehicle through a window. The perimeter anti-theft alarm system is designed to work with the factory-installed Remote Keyless Entry System.SecuriLock passive anti-theft ignition...(more)
AUTO LAMP SYSTEM  look up translate image
Provides ambient-light-sensitive automatic on-off control of the exterior lights normally controlled by the head lamp control switch Comes preprogrammed to keep the lights on for approximately 20 seconds after the ignition switch is turned off If desired, the time delay can be reprogrammed on some vehicles to keep the lights on for up to 3 minutes after the ignition is turned off. See the vehicle Owner's Guide for more details
AUTO LOCK  look up translate image
Auto lock feature will lock all the doors, lift gate and lift gate window when all doors are closed, the ignition is in the ON position, the vehicle is shifted into any drive gear putting the vehicle in motion See the vehicle Owner's Guide for vehicle-specific information on the range of functions
AUXILIARY SPRINGS  look up translate image
Used on many light trucks for load stability or to support heavy loads with minimal effect on ride characteristics Help control roll and sway of trucks with high bodies that carry loads that might shift when cornering or operating on high-crowned roads Usually used on rear leaf springs, and are mounted to act only after the regular springs are partially deflected under heavy loads
AXLE RATIO  look up translate image
The number of output shaft (on front-wheel-drive vehicles) or drive shaft (on rear-wheel-drive vehicles) revolutions required to rotate the axle one full turn For a rear-wheel-drive vehicle with an axle ratio of 3.55:1, the drive shaft would have to rotate 3.55 times to rotate the rear axle once. This is also known as the Final Drive Ratio Lower numeric axle ratios tend to be more fuel-efficient. Higher axle ratios deliver added torque for increased power for acceleration and trailer towing Front-wheel-drive vehicles employ an Axle Transfer Ratio, essentially a Final Drive Ratio
AXLE, 2-SPEED  look up translate image
Type of rear drive axle offering two reduction ratios and a control mechanism for selecting either ratio at the driver's discretion "Lo" axle range (the higher numerical ratio) provides maximum pulling power "Hi" range (the lower numerical ratio) provides maximum road speed 2-speed rear axle permits split-shifting in the lower transmission gears to obtain evenly spaced gear steps that optimize available engine power 2-speed axle can be used in Lo range for crisp performance at slower speeds or in Hi range for maximum economy on the highway
AXLES, REAR DRIVE  look up translate image
Full-floating Rear Axle Generally used in heavier-duty applications. The full-floating axle shafts "float" within the outer axle housing where they drive the wheels. The outer housing supports the entire rear weight through double-opposed wheel bearings, which absorb all load and wheel stress Semi-floating Rear Axle The axle shafts and wheel bearings not only support the total weight, but also transmit driving torque to the wheels. This axle system also resists stress due to skidding, turning corners and other traction forces See Live Axle for more information
BALANCE SHAFT  look up translate image
Engine shaft designed so it rotates in a way that reduces or cancels out vibrations produced by the engine, resulting in reduced noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) in the passenger compartment In 4-cylinder engines, two shafts turning in opposite directions on either side of the engine's crankshaft are generally used, while in V-type engines, a single balance shaft is used
BATTERY SAVER  look up translate image

BIO-FOAM SEAT MATERIALS  look up translate image
Type of foam used in Mustang and Escape/Escape Hybrid seat production Production of bio-foam is designed to emit less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere Material is designed to require less energy to produce than the petroleum-based foam Emphasizes Ford's commitment to its environmental responsibility
BODY-ON-FRAME CONSTRUCTION  look up translate image
Type of vehicle construction with the body attached to a separate frame, often with rubber mounts to reduce squeaks and rattles, helping to isolate road noise and vibration Typically more sturdy and robust when compared to vehicles with unibody construction Provides a solid foundation that contributes to payload and towing capability
BORE AND STROKE  look up translate image
While these two terms are frequently used together, they are two totally different measurements Bore is the measurement of the inside diameter of a cylinder Stroke is the distance the piston travels from top-dead-center (TDC) to bottom-dead-center (BDC) of the cylinder
BOX SIDE STEPS  look up translate image
Frame-mounted steps located on each side of the truck cargo box and in front of the rear wheel well used to make it easy to access the cargo box. Able to support up to 500 lbs. Allow convenient side access to the cargo box using a release lever located on the step Return to stowage position by pushing the steps back into/under the cargo box
BOXED FRAME  look up translate image
As the name implies, a "boxed" frame has four sides, which provides additional strength. It is a closed structural section that has greater resistance to twisting and torsion forces than comparably sized "open" frame designs.
BRAKE BIAS  look up translate image
Front/rear distribution of a vehicle's braking power. Generally the front of a vehicle where the engine and majority of weight and steering functions are located supplies the greater amount of braking power.
BRAKE MODULATION  look up translate image
The process of varying pedal pressure to hold a vehicle on the verge of lockup to supply maximum braking efficiency. Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) employ computer-controlled modulators to maximize braking efficiency.
BRAKE/SHIFT INTERLOCK (AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS)  look up translate image
Requires driver to depress the brake pedal in order to shift out of Park and into any gear Prevents accidental engagement of drive gears Vehicles with a floor-mounted gearshift lever include a manual override in the console; vehicles with a column-mounted gearshift include a manual override under the steering column
BRAKING SYSTEMS  look up translate image
Ford Motor Company uses a number of different braking systems on its passenger cars, crossovers, SUVs and light trucks, including the following: Four-wheel Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) Helps provide straight, more controlled stops, while helping the driver maintain steering control undermost road conditions, including slippery road surfaces ABS computer-controlled sensors prevent wheels from locking up, even when the driver presses hard on the brake pedal Sensors continuously monitor...(more)
BREAKAWAY VALVE  look up translate image
Safety valve designed to protect the air supply of a tractor or leading trailer and automatically apply the brakes of a trailing unit in the event of accidental separation.
CAM PROFILE  look up translate image
Shape of each lobe on a camshaft that determines the amount or duration of time an intake or exhaust valve is open and the valve's maximum opening, or "lift."
CAMBER  look up translate image
Inclination of the plane of a wheel to the vertical plane of symmetry of a vehicle.
CAMSHAFT  look up translate image
Shaft in an engine block or cylinder head that includes a series of lobes which regulates opening and closing the intake and exhaust valves, allowing the engine to "breathe."
CARGO MANAGEMENT RAILS  look up translate image
Two aluminum rails attached to the upper rail of a cargo box Include four adjustable tie-down cleats that can be positioned along the cargo box rails, providing secure attachment points to keep cargo in place
CARGO TIE-DOWN NET  look up translate image
Usually made of nylon mesh Secures cargo and packages in a vehicle's luggage compartment or rear cargo area
CASTER  look up translate image
The angle between the steering axis and the true vertical axis when viewed from the side. Caster is considered "positive" when the steering axis is inclined upward and toward the rear.
CATALYTIC CONVERTER  look up translate image
Muffler-shaped device in the exhaust system Usually contains platinum, palladium and/or rhodium, which acts as a catalyst in a chemical reaction that converts unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen into water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gases that are less toxic than untreated exhaust fumes
CENTER DIFFERENTIAL  look up translate image
used in some four-wheel-drive vehicles to distribute power to the front and rear differentials.
CENTER OF GRAVITY (CENTER OF MASS)  look up translate image
Point at which the entire weight of a body is considered to be concentrated so that, if supported at this point, the body would remain in equilibrium in any position.
CHARGE MOTION CONTROL VALVES  look up translate image
Electronically controlled metal flap located at the end of each intake runner These flaps are specially shaped to speed up the intake charge at low engine speed and induce a tumble effecting the combustion chamber that results in a more thorough fuel/air mixture and quicker, more efficient burn At higher engine speed the flaps are completely open and do not affect the intake charge
CHASSIS  look up translate image
Portion of the vehicle that includes: Suspension Steering components Power train Brakes Fuel system Refer to the Power trains section of this book for details concerning Ford power train systems.
CHASSIS CAB  look up translate image
Unfinished truck featuring an occupant compartment, or cab, without a cargo bed A chassis cab requires the addition of cargo-carrying (cargo box, flatbed), work-performing (tow lift) or load-bearing (dump assembly) components to perform its intended functions
CLIMATE-CONTROLLED SEATS  look up translate image
Feature a tiny thermoelectric device that allows the occupant to cool or warm the seat and backrest depending on outdoor temperature and personal preference The thermoelectric modules are solid-state devices with surfaces that turn hot or cold depending on the polarity of the applied direct current electricity Heat-transfer components attached to the modules cool or heat the air that is blown past them and then is circulated through ducts and pads in the seats and onto the occupants Each seat has individual electronic controls to adjust the level of cooling or heating desired
CLUTCH  look up translate image
Mechanical device that engages and disengages the engine from the transmission/Trans axle during shifting, operated by a pedal to the left of the brake pedal Depressing the clutch pedal interrupts power flow to the transmission/Trans axle. Releasing the clutch pedal with the gearshift in place will reengage the transmission/trans axle Clutch must be fully depressed to start a vehicle with a manual transmission/transaxle
COIL SPRING  look up translate image
Spiral-shaped spring that can be compressed or extended without permanent deformation and that is widely used in front and rear suspension systems, including the Macpherson strut front suspension used on many Ford vehicles
COMBUSTION CHAMBER  look up translate image
Portion of the engine where the air/fuel mixture is ignited and converted to mechanical energy; includes all the space above the piston at top-dead-center (TDC), including the cylinder head, which forms the top of the combustion chamber.
COMMAND SEATING TM  look up translate image
Front-seat design that is raised higher when compared to a typical seat design Gives the driver and front passenger a "commanding" seating position for comfort and excellent visibility and helps provide drivers a better view of the road due to the raised seat design This is achieved partly by raising the seat's hip pivot point Makes getting into and out of the seats easier
COMPRESSION RATIO  look up translate image
Ratio between the engine cylinder volume (including the cylinder head volume) when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke and the engine cylinder volume when the piston is at the top of its stroke.
CONNECTING ROD  look up translate image
Mechanical link between the piston and the crankshaft that enables the piston's up-and-down travel to be converted into the crankshaft's rotational motion Some Ford engines use forged, powdered-metal, cracked connecting rods. These connecting rods are manufactured using a process pioneered by Ford Connecting rods are typically forged from a flat or round metal billet. Powdered-metal rods, however, begin as loose metal powder blended to the required composition and forged in a form that is nearly at the final "net shape"
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Automobile terms
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Created on 2011-05-01 04:06:59
Number of terms 276
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Sources
  • Canadian Automotive Industry - Glossary of Automotive Terms
    www.ic.gc.ca
    Glossary of Automotive Terms
  • Ford Vehicle Glossary | The Official Site of Ford Vehicles | Ford.com
    www.ford.com
    Find definitions of key Ford, and vehicle-related, terms and phrases.