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- ALIYAH look up translate image
- "A term used in modern Judaism especially for migration (Literal Hebrew, 'going up') to the land of Israel." Source:Jewish Virtual Library, Glossary, Aliyah
- ALLAH look up translate image
- "Allah is the Arabic word for God. The etymology of Allah has been described literally as 'that which is worthy of worship...' Some Muslims feel they cannot say the word God but must use the word Allah even in English, as only the original Arabic can convey the notion of God properly." Source:Out There News, Islam Glossary, Allah
- ANTI-SEMITISM look up translate image
- "The attributing of all or part of one's own misfortunes, and those of one's country, to the presence of Jewish elements in the community, and proposing to remedying this state of affairs by depriving the Jews of certain of their rights; by keeping them out of certain economic or social activities, by expelling them from the country, by exterminating them etc." Source:Jean Paul Sartre, Anti-Semite and Jew , 1965
- ASHKENAZIM look up translate image
- "The Ashkenazim are Jews with origins in Europe and North America; some of their fathers and grandfathers settled as the original Zionist pioneers in Palestine before the creation of the Jewish state." Source:David K. Shipler, Arab and Jew, 2002
- BALFOUR DECLARATION look up translate image
- On Nov. 2, 1917, the British government stated that it supported creating a "national home" for Jews in Palestine without infringing upon the civil and religious rights of non-Jewish communities in Palestine. Britain was the first major power to announce support for a Jewish state in Palestine.
- DIASPORA look up translate image
- "Refers to the Jews living in scattered communities outside Eretz Yisrael (the Land of Israel) during and after the Babylonian Captivity (sixth century B.C.) and, especially, after the dispersion of the Jews from the region after the destruction of the Temple by the Romans in A.D. 70 and the Bar-Kokhba War in A.D. 132-35. In modern times the word refers to the Jews living outside Palestine or present-day Israel. When the word is applied -- usually lowercased -- to non-Jews, such as the Palestinian...(more)
- FATAH look up translate image
- A major, left-wing political party and the largest faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization
- FATAH CENTRAL COMMITTEE look up translate image
- Executive body of Fatah; consists of 21 members "unanimously in charge of all the movement's activities" Source:Fatah Constitution "The Central Committee"
- FATWAH look up translate image
- "A fatwa is an Islamic religious ruling, a scholarly opinion on a matter of Islamic law. A fatwa is issued by a recognized religious authority in Islam. But since there is no hierarchical priesthood or anything of the sort in Islam, a fatwa is not necessarily 'binding' on the faithful. The people who pronounce these rulings are supposed to be knowledgeable, and base their rulings in knowledge and wisdom. They need to supply the evidence from Islamic sources for their opinions, and it is not uncommon for scholars to come to different conclusions regarding the same issue." Source: About.com - Islam
- FLOTILLA look up translate image
- a group of small naval vessels; a group moving together
- GAZA look up translate image
- A strip of land along the Mediterranean coast between Israel and Egypt about twice the size of Washington, D.C. A majority of its 1.4 million residents are Palestinian refugees
- GENEVA ACCORD look up translate image
- Also called the Geneva Initiative, it is an agreement intended to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict based on previous negotiations: the Arab Peace Initiative, the Clinton proposals, and the Quartet roadmap for peace.
- GOLAN HEIGHTS look up translate image
- An area of land occupied by Israel, which runs along the border of Syria and Israel and includes a strategically important rocky plateau. The area provides about 15% of Israel's water supply and a large amount of Israel's agricultural production.
- GREEN LINE look up translate image
- Also known as the 1949 Armistice Line, it was the boundary set between Israel and Jordan after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The name came from the green pencil line drawn during cease fire negotiations between the two countries. The boundaries set between Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. It also includes the boundaries between Israel, the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, and Sinai Peninsula, as negotiated in the truce agreement of the 1967 Six-Day War....(more)
- HADITH look up translate image
- "The corpus of traditions, transmitted through the generations and describing the actions and utterances of the Prophet [Muhammad]." Source:Bernard Lewis, Islam and the West, 1993
- HAGANAH look up translate image
- "The underground military organization of the yishuv in Eretz Yisrael from 1920 to 1948... In June 1920, the Haganah was founded. In the spring of 1947, David Ben-Gurion took it upon himself to direct the general policy of the Haganah, especially in preparation for impending Arab attack. On May 26 1948, the Provisional Government of Israel decided to transform the Haganah into the regular army of the State, to be called 'Zeva Haganah Le-Yisrael'[Israel Defence Force]" Source:Jewish Virtual Library, Apr. 20, 2007
- HAMAS look up translate image
- Palestinian Islamist political party that has governed the Gaza strip since 2007. Rival party of Fatah, although the two parties signed a reconciliation agreement in 2011. Considered a terrorist organization by the United States.
- HARAM ESH-SHARIF look up translate image
- The term means the "noble sanctuary" and refers to the entire area in Jerusalem that surrounds the rock where the al-Aksa Mosque is located.
- HEZBOLLAH look up translate image
- A Shiite political, social, and military organization based in Lebanon with ties to Syria and Iran. Both countries help finance the group. Considered a terrorist group by the United States.
- HUDNA look up translate image
- "A truce is referred to in Arabic as a 'hudna.' Typically covering 10 years, a hudna is recognized in Islamic jurisprudence as a legitimate and binding contract. A hudna extends beyond the Western concept of a cease-fire and obliges the parties to use the period to seek a permanent, nonviolent resolution to their differences. The Koran finds great merit in such efforts at promoting understanding among different people. Whereas war dehumanizes the enemy and makes it easier to kill, a hudna affords...(more)
- INDIGENOUS look up translate image
- "Having originated in and being produced, growing, or living naturally in a particular region or environment." Source:Merriam-Webster Dictionary, "Indigenous"
- INTIFADA look up translate image
- Means to literally "shake off" in Arabic. The first intifada was a revolt that began in December 1987 by Palestinian Arabs to protest Israel's occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A second intifada began in September 2000.
"Arabic word stands for shaking off or shivering because of fear or illness. It also means abrupt and sudden waking up from sleep or unconcerned status. Politically, the word came to symbolize the Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation."
- ISRAEL look up translate image
- "He [Jacob] wrestled with a man until the break of day. As the dawn broke, Jacob demanded a blessing from the man, and the 'man' revealed himself as an angel. He blessed Jacob and gave him the name 'Israel' (Yisrael), meaning 'the one who wrestled with G-d' or 'the Champion of G-d.' The Jewish people are generally referred to as the Children of Israel, signifying our descent from Jacob." Source:Judaism 101, Jacob (Israel)
- ISRAEL DEFENSE FORCES (IDF) look up translate image
- The sole military wing of the Israeli security forces
- JIHAD look up translate image
- "One of the basic tasks bequeathed to Muslims by the Prophet was jihad. This word comes from the Arabic root j-h-d, with the basic meaning of striving or effort. It is often used in classical texts with the closely related meaning of struggle, and hence also of fight. It is usually cited in the Qur'anic phrase 'striving in the path of God' (e.g., IX, 24; LX 1 et cetera) and has been variously interpreted to mean moral striving and armed struggle." Source:Bernard Lewis, The Crisis of Islam, 2003
- KIBBUTZ look up translate image
- "The kibbutz (Hebrew word for 'communal settlement') is a unique rural community; a society dedicated to mutual aid and social justice; a socioeconomic system based on the principle of joint ownership of property, equality and cooperation of production, consumption and education; the fulfillment of the idea 'from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs'; a home for those who have chosen it." Source:Jewish Virtual Library
- KNESSET look up translate image
- Means the "gathering" or "assembly." It is the legislative branch of the Israeli government, located in Givat Ram, Jerusalem.
"The Knesset is the house of representatives (the parliament) of the State of Israel" Source:Knesset Website
- KORAN (QUR'AN) look up translate image
- "Orthodox Muslims have always believed that the Qur'an is the Word of God, revealed in the Arabic language through an angel to Muhammad." Source:Albert Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples, 1991
- LAND FOR PEACE look up translate image
- "UN Security Council Resolution 242 established the principle thereafter referred to in shorthand as ‘land for peace.’ Specifically, Resolution 242 asserted the non-admissibility of the acquisition of territory through force, and stipulated that Israel should ultimately return ‘territories’ occupied through the course of the 1967 conflict [Six-Day War]. This principle has shaped subsequent negotiations and diplomacy." Source: Vaughn Lowe, The United Nations Security Council and War: Evolution of Thought and Practice Since 1945, 2008
- MANDATE look up translate image
- "An order or commission granted by the League of Nations to a member nation for the establishment of a responsible government over a former German colony or other conquered territory." Source:Merriam-Webster Dictionary, "Mandate"
- MOSQUE look up translate image
- "An Islamic place of public worship. In Arabic, masjid (place of prostration)." Source:Dilip Hiro, The Essential Middle East, 2003
- NAKBA look up translate image
- Arabic word for catastrophe, used by Arabs to refer to what is called the War of Independence by the Jews
Arabic for "catastrophe." For Palestinians, nakba refers to "the expulsion and dispossession of hundreds of thousands Palestinians from their homes and land in 1948." Source:Electronic Intifada, (accessed June 25, 2008)
- ONE-STATE SOLUTION (BI-NATIONAL STATE) look up translate image
- "In a bi-national state, Jews and Palestinians would coexist as separate communities in a federal arrangement. Each people would run its own affairs autonomously and be guaranteed the legal right to use its own language, religion and traditions. Both would participate in government in a single parliament, which would be concerned with matters of supra-communal importance, defense, resources, the economy and so on. Such a state could be modeled on the cantonal structure of Switzerland or the bi-national...(more)
- ONE-STATE SOLUTION (DEMOCRATIC SECULAR STATE) look up translate image
- "The democratic secular state...envisions a one-man, one-vote polity without reference to ethnicity or creed [as in the bi-national state]. It would aim to create an equitable pluralist society on the Western democratic model, and is opposed to an arrangement of separate communities." Source: Ghadi Karmi, PhD "A Secular Democratic State in Historic Palestine: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?”, Al-ADab, July 2002
- OSLO ACCORDS look up translate image
- Intended to be a framework for all future negotiations between Israel and Palestine, conducted secretly in Oslo, Norway, and completed in August 1993
- PALESTINE look up translate image
- "Historic Palestine refers to the land between the Mediterranean Sea, southern Syria, the Jordan River, and the Negev Desert. The name 'Palestine,' originated from the Philistines, the biblical people of Greek ancestry who once conquered the land that is today the State of Israel and the occupied territories [West Bank & Gaza Strip]. The actual term 'Palestine' did not enter into common usage until A.D. 135, when it was adopted by the Roman emperor Hadrian. It was employed through the Muslim conquests...(more)
- PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION (PLO) look up translate image
- The sole political and paramilitary organization that represents the Palestinians
- PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY (PA) look up translate image
- The administrative organization that governs parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. It was formed in 1994, and has since been renamed the Palestinian National Authority (PNA).
- PALESTINIAN LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL (PLC) look up translate image
- Legislative body of the Palestinian Authority (PA); consists of 88 members elected by the Palestinian people in the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Jerusalem (does not represent Palestinians in the Diaspora); Members are independents or affiliated with Fatah, Fida, PFLP, PPP, or Hamas;PLC powers are limited by the Palestinian-Israeli agreements(legislation excludes issues left for the final status negotiations). Source:Palestinian Authority, online, as of Jan. 2005
- PALESTINIAN NATIONAL AUTHORITY (PNA) look up translate image
- The administrative organization that governs parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip
- PLO EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE look up translate image
- The "government in exile" of the State of Palestine; Executive body of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), consists of eighteen members elected by the Palestine National Committee (PNC) Source:Palestinian Authority, "PLO Executive Committee," online, as of Jan. 2005
- PLO NEGOTIATIONS AFFAIRS DEPT. (NAD) look up translate image
- "Established in 1994 in Gaza in order to follow up on the implementation of the Interim Agreement signed between Israel and the PLO... The Negotiations Affairs Department has two offices – one in Gaza and a second in Ramallah. The NAD office in Gaza is composed of units responsible for Israeli affairs, Israel’s violations of signed agreements, Israel’s colonization, and refugees. The Ramallah office is responsible for following up on the Interim Agreements and preparing Palestinian positions...(more)
- PNC look up translate image
- Palestinian National Council: ultimate decision making body and legislative authority of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). It formulates policies and sets guidelines for the Executive.
- QUARTET look up translate image
- "The Office of the Quartet Representative (OQR) works with the Palestinian Authority, the Government of Israel, international organisations and NGOs to help build the institutions and economy for a future Palestinian state. The OQR seeks to achieve the objective of the Quartet and Quartet Representative...: to promote an end to the Israel-Palestine conflict and bring stability to the Middle East. The Quartet was established in 2002 and is composed of the United States, the European Union, the United...(more)
- ROAD MAP TO PEACE look up translate image
- "The road map is an internationally devised peace plan, drawn up by the US, the UN, the EU and Russia - with Israeli and Palestinian consultation - that seeks a two state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. That means setting up an independent Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the two occupied territories, alongside Israel. The plan was published in 2003 with the backing of the US president, George Bush... He told a summit of Arab leaders in Egypt he wanted to see a ‘a...(more)
- SEPHARDIC look up translate image
- "The Sephardim, a term initially applied to the Jews in Spain, now include those with origins mostly in the Muslim countries of North Africa and the Middle East, as well as those from Sephardi communities in Greece, Bulgaria, South America, India, and elsewhere. Colloquially, they are also known as Oriental or Eastern Jews. Although some families can trace their presence in Palestine back for six or eight generations, Sephardim began arriving in Israel in large numbers only during the 1950's, well after the Ashkenazi establishment was firmly in place." Source:David K. Shipler, Arab and Jew, 2002
- SETTLEMENTS look up translate image
- "New towns for Israeli settlers built in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza after they were seized by Israel in the wake of the 1967 war. The Israeli government has been building these settlements since the 1970s. Palestinians say these settlements represent a colonization of Palestinian lands; but the Israeli settler movement and its political supporters say these lands are part of the ancient biblical state of Israel. The construction of new settlements accelerated in the 1990s....(more)
- SHARIA look up translate image
- "(Arabic: way or road): Islamic Law: Consisting of divine revelation in the form of the Quran and the prophetic practice, sunna (as recorded in the Hadith), the Sharia completely governs the individual and the social life of the believer. The Quaran provides the principles and the Hadith the details of their application. The Sharia is the basis for judging actions as good or evil." Source:Dilip Hiro, The Essential Middle East, 2003
- SHIISM look up translate image
- "Shiism is a minority branch of Islam which makes up about one tenth of the total population of the Muslim world. It dates back to the first decades of the Islamic era when the Shiites formed the party (shi'a) of Ali, the fourth Caliph who directly descended from the Prophet, against Mu'awiya, governor of Damascus who claimed the caliphate but had no kinship with Muhammad. The first Shiites (or Shias) were Arabs who split from the Sunni mainstream in the seventh century AD." Source:MEDEA, Shiism, Medea's information files, 2000
- SUNNISM look up translate image
- "It is the main branch of Islam and recognizes the legitimacy of the first four caliphs. It represents the majority of the population in all Arab countries and numbers about 185 million adherents... A Sunni Muslim should also live according to the rules laid down by the four legal schools: the Maliki, Shafi, Hanafi and Hanbali, which differ among each other on the relative importance given to the consensus about the views expressed in the "hadith" and the freedom of interpretation given to the judges." Source:MEDEA, Sunnism, Medea's information files, 2000
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