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- ACETIC ACID look up translate image
- A pungent, colorless liquid acid that is the primary acid in vinegar (vinegar is 5% acetic acid). Acetic acid is what makes vinegar sour.
- ACID look up translate image
- Any substance in a class of sour compounds.
- ACID FOODS look up translate image
- Foods which contain enough acid to result in a pH of 4.6 or lower. Includes all fruits except figs; most tomatoes; fermented and pickled vegetables; relishes; and jams, jellies, and marmalades. Acid foods may be processed in boiling water.
- ALTITUDE look up translate image
- The vertical elevation (distance in feet or meters) of a location above sea level.
- ALUM look up translate image
- An ingredient used in older pickling recipes to add crispness and firmness to pickles. Alum, if consumed in large doses, may cause nausea and/or gastrointestinal problems and is no longer recommended for use in pickling recipes. If used, it must be thoroughly rinsed away. The chemical name is potassium aluminum sulfate.
- ANTIOXIDANT look up translate image
- A substance, such as citric acid (lemon or lime juice), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or a blend of citric and ascorbic acids, that inhibits oxidation and controls browning of light-colored fruits and vegetables. Antioxidants are believed to neutralize free radicals, harmful particles in your body that can cause long-term damage to cells and lead to disease.
- ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER look up translate image
- Any one of many synthetically produced non-nutritive sweet substances. Artificial sweeteners vary in sweetness but are usually many times sweeter than granulated sugar.
- ASCORBIC ACID look up translate image
- The chemical name for vitamin C, a natural, water-soluble vitamin that is commercially available in a concentrated form as white, odorless crystals or powder. It is used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation and control browning of light-colored fruits and vegetables.
- BACTERIA look up translate image
- Microorganisms, some of which are harmful, found in the soil, water and air around us. Some bacteria thrive in conditions common in low-acid preserved food and produce toxins that must be destroyed by heating to 240°F (116°C) for a specified length of time. For this reason, low-acid foods must be processed in a pressure canner.
- BAND look up translate image
- See screw band.
- BLANCH look up translate image
- To submerge a food in boiling water or steam for a short period of time, done to loosen the skin or peel or to inactivate enzymes. Blanching is immediately followed by rapidly cooling the food in ice water.
- BLANCHER look up translate image
- A 6 to 8 quart lidded pot designed with a fitted perforated basket to hold food in boiling water, or with a fitted rack to steam foods. Useful for loosening skins on fruits to be peeled, or for heating foods to be hot packed.
- BOIL look up translate image
- To heat a liquid until bubbles break the surface. At sea level, this happens at 212°F (100°C). At elevations above 1,000 feet (305 m), the boiling point is reached at a lower temperature. A boil is achieved only when the liquid is continuously rolling or actively bubbling. See also boil gently or simmer or boil, full rolling.
- BOIL GENTLY OR SIMMER look up translate image
- To cook food gently just below the boiling point (180°F to 200°F/82°C to 93°C). Bubbles rise from the pot bottom, only slightly disturbing the surface of the food.
- BOIL, FULL ROLLING look up translate image
- A rapid boil, usually foaming or spurting, that cannot be stirred down, achieved at a temperature of 220°F (104°C). This stage is essential for attaining a gel when making cooked jams or jellies.
- BOILING look up translate image
- water canner - A large standard-sized lidded kettle with jar rack, designed for heat-processing 7 quarts or 8 to 9 pints in boiling water.
- BOILING POINT look up translate image
- The temperature at which liquid reaches a boil (212°F/100°C at sea level).
- BOILING WATER BATH CANNER look up translate image
- Specialized pot used for water bath canning. Comes with a rack to hold jars off the bottom of the canner.
- BOILING WATER CANNER look up translate image
- A large, deep saucepan equipped with a lid and a rack to lift jars off direct heat. The pot must be deep enough to fully surround and immerse jars in water by 1 to 2 inches and allow for the water to boil rapidly with the lid on. If you don't have a rack designed for preserving, use a cake cooling rack or extra bands tied together to cover the bottom of the pot.
- BOILING WATER METHOD look up translate image
- The fresh preserving method used to process high-acid foods. Heat is transferred to the food product by the boiling water, which completely surrounds the jar and two-piece closure. A temperature of 212°F (100°C) is reached and must be maintained for the time specified by the recipe. This method is adequate to destroy molds, yeasts and some bacteria, as well as to inactivate enzymes. The boiling water method must not be used to process low-acid foods.
- BOTULISM look up translate image
- Food poisoning caused by the ingestion of the toxin produced by spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism can be fatal. The spores are usually present in the dust, wind and soil clinging to raw food. They belong to a species of bacteria that cannot grow in the presence of air, and they do not normally thrive in high-acid foods. The spores can survive and grow in any tightly sealed jar of low-acid food that has not been processed correctly. Using the correct processing temperature and time to preserve low-acid foods will destroy toxin-producing spores.
- BOUQUET GARNI look up translate image
- A spice bag, or a square of cheesecloth tied into a bag, that is filled with whole herbs and spices and is used to flavor broth, soup, pickling liquid and other foods. This method allows for easy removal of the herbs and spices after cooking.
- BRINE look up translate image
- A salt-water solution used in pickling or when preserving foods. Although salt and water are the main ingredients, sugar and spices are sometimes added.
- BRINED PICKLES look up translate image
- See fermented pickles.
- BROWNING look up translate image
- The unfavorable color change caused when the cut surface of some fruits and vegetables is exposed to the oxygen in the air. The reaction is called oxidation.
- BUBBLE REMOVER look up translate image
- A non-metallic utensil used in fresh preserving to remove or free air bubbles trapped inside the jar. To ensure appropriate headspace, air bubbles should be removed before the two-piece closure is applied.
- BUTTER look up translate image
- See fruit butter.
- CALCIUM CHLORIDE look up translate image
- A naturally occurring salt found in some mineral deposits, used as a crisping agent. The food-safe ingredient is added to the jar before processing, or used in a solution with water as a presoak. Calcium chloride is used commercially to produce crisp, firm pickles. See also Pickle Crisp® granules.
- CANDY OR JELLY THERMOMETER look up translate image
- A kitchen thermometer that usually comes with adjustable hooks or clips to allow it to be attached to the pan. During the preparation of soft spreads without added pectin, it is used to determine when the gel stage is reached (this occurs at 220°F/104°C, or 8°F/4°C) above the boiling point of water). Always insert the thermometer vertically into the jelly and ensure that it does not contact the pot surface.
- CANNER look up translate image
- Either one of two pieces of equipment used in fresh preserving to process jars filled with a food product and covered with a two-piece closure. The two types of canners recommended for use in fresh preserving are a boiling water canner for high-acid foods and a pressure canner for low-acid foods.
- CANNING look up translate image
- A method of preserving food in air-tight vacuum-sealed containers and heat processing sufficiently to enable storing the food at normal-home temperatures.
- CANNING SALT look up translate image
- Also called pickling salt. It is regular table salt without the anticaking or iodine additives.
- CANNING/PRESERVING LIQUID look up translate image
- Any one of many types of liquids, such as water, cooking liquid, pickling liquid, broth, juice or syrup, used to cover solid food products. Adding liquid prevents darkening of food exposed to the surface and allows for heat penetration.
- CANNING/PRESERVING SALT look up translate image
- See salt, pickling or preserving.
- CAP look up translate image
- See two-piece closure.
- CHEESECLOTH look up translate image
- A lightweight, woven cloth that has many uses in the kitchen. For fresh preserving, it can be used in place of a jelly bag to strain juice from fruit pulp when making jelly or homemade juice, or it can be formed into a bag to hold whole herbs and spices during the cooking process, aiding in easy removal.
- CHUTNEY look up translate image
- A combination of vegetables and/or fruits, spices and vinegar cooked for a long period of time to develop favorable flavor and texture. Chutneys are highly spiced and have a sweet-sour blending of flavors.
- CITRIC ACID look up translate image
- A natural acid derived from citrus fruits, such as lemons and limes. It is available as white crystals or granules and is used as an ingredient in commercial produce protectors to prevent oxidation and in pectin products to aid in gel formation by increasing the acidity of the jam or jelly.
- CLEARJEL© look up translate image
- A commercially available modified food starch that is approved for use in fresh preserving. Unlike regular cornstarch, products thickened with ClearJel(C) do not break down when heated to high temperatures and/or cooled and reheated. ClearJel(C) can be ordered from online sources or by mail order.
- CLEARJEL® look up translate image
- A commercially available modified food starch that is approved for use in fresh preserving. Unlike regular cornstarch, products thickened with ClearJel® do not break down when heated to high temperatures and/or cooled and reheated. ClearJel® can be ordered from online sources or by mail order.
- CLOSURE look up translate image
- See two-piece closure.
- COLD PACK look up translate image
- Canning procedure in which jars are filled with raw food. "Raw pack" is the preferred term for describing this practice. "Cold pack" is often used incorrectly to refer to foods that are open-kettle canned or jars that are heat-processed in boiling water.
- COLD PACKED look up translate image
- (Sometimes called raw pack) means the food is raw when it's packed in the jars. Hot liquid is added over the raw food. Raw packed is actually a better term. You never want to put ‘cold’ jars in your hot canner. The jars may break.
- COLD-PACKING look up translate image
- See raw-pack method.
- CONDIMENT look up translate image
- A sweet or savory sauce used to enhance or garnish entrées.
- CONSERVE look up translate image
- A soft spread similar to jam, made with a combination of two or more fruits, along with nuts and/or raisins. If nuts are used, they are added during the last five minutes of cooking.
- COOL PLACE look up translate image
- A term used to describe the best storage temperature for fresh preserved products. The ideal temperature is 50°F to 70°F (10°C to 21°C).
- CRISPING AGENT look up translate image
- Any one of many substances that make pickles crisp and firm. Some older pickling recipes call for pickling lime, alum or grape leaves to crisp pickles, but these are no longer recommended. Using fresh, high-quality produce, the correct ingredient quantities and a current, tested fresh preserving recipe will produce firm pickles without the addition of crisping agents. The texture of some quick-process or fresh-pack pickles, however, can be enhanced with the use of a product called Pickle Crisp® Granules.
- CUCUMBER, PICKLING look up translate image
- A small variety of cucumber used to make pickles. Pickling cucumbers are usually no more than 6 inches (15 cm) in length. Cucumbers deteriorate rapidly at room temperature and should be stored in the refrigerator and used within 24 hours of harvest.
- DEXTROSE look up translate image
- A naturally occurring form of glucose. Dextrose is available as a white crystal or powder and is less sweet than granulated sugar. It is also called corn sugar or grape sugar. Dextrose is widely used as an ingredient in commercial food products. It is found in commercial pectin and produce protectors and functions as a bulking agent or filler.
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