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- A-B-A DESIGN look up translate image
- Experimental design in which participants first experience the baseline condition (A), then experience the experimental treatment (B), and then return to the baseline (A).
- ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY look up translate image
- The area of psychological investigation concerned with understanding the nature of individual pathologies of mind, mood, and behavior.
- ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD look up translate image
- The minimum amount of physical energy needed to produce a reliable sensory experience; operationally defined as the stimulus level at which a sensory signal is detected half the time.
- ACCOMMODATION look up translate image
- The process by which the ciliary muscles change the thickness of the lens of the eye to permit variable focusing on near and distant objects.
- ACCOMMODATION look up translate image
- According to Piaget, the process of restructuring or modifying cognitive structures so that new information can fit into them more easily; this process works in tandem with assimilation.
- ACCOMMODATION IN PIAGET'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY look up translate image
- the modification of old ways of thinking to incorporate new knowledge and information
- ACCOMMODATION IN VISION look up translate image
- the changing of the shape and the refractory ability of the lens in the eye as it focuses the image of an object
- ACCULTURATION look up translate image
- the process of acquiring the values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of a new culture
- ACETYLCHOLINE look up translate image
- one of the most common neurotransmitters in the human nervous system, it is manufactured and delivered by motor neurons
- ACQUISITION look up translate image
- The stage in a classical conditioning experiment during which the conditioned response is first elicited by the conditioned stimulus.
- ACTION POTENTIAL look up translate image
- The nerve impulse activated in a neuron that travels down the axon and causes neurotransmitters to be released into a synapse.
- ACTIVE TOUCH look up translate image
- the manipulation of an object, which produces information about the shape, weight, length, and other characteristics of the object
- ACTOR-OBSERVER EFFECT look up translate image
- the tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes while attributing one's own behavior to situational causes
- ACUPUNCTURE look up translate image
- a treatment in traditional Chinese medicine in which sharp needles are inserted in special places on the skin and twirled rapidly to affect other parts of the body, this technique is used to suppress pain and to treat other bodily problems
- ACUTE STRESS look up translate image
- A transient state of arousal with typically clear onset and offset patterns.
- ADDICTION look up translate image
- A condition in which the body requires a drug in order to function without physical and psychological reactions to its absence; often the outcome of tolerance and dependence.
- ADRENAL GLANDS, ADRENALS look up translate image
- the endocrine glands responsible for secreting the hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which regulate bodily functions and affect mood and emotion, blood pressure, blood sugar level, and redistribution of blood between internal organs and voluntary muscles
- ADULTHOOD look up translate image
- the period of development that takes place from puberty to death
- AFTERIMAGE look up translate image
- a sensory impression that lasts after removal of the stimulus that caused it
- AGEISM look up translate image
- Prejudice against older people, similar to racism and sexism in its negative stereotypes.
- AGGRESSION look up translate image
- Behaviors that cause psychological or physical harm to another individual.
- AGONISTS look up translate image
- a group of psychoactive drugs that cause neurotransmitters to be released, prevent deactivation of neurotransmitters, or mimic the effects of neurotransmitters by binding to their receptors, drugs such as nicotine and cocaine are examples
- AGORAPHOBIA look up translate image
- An extreme fear of being in public places or open spaces from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing.
- AIDS look up translate image
- Acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a syndrome caused by a virus that damages the immune system and weakens the body's ability to fight infection.
- ALCOHOL INTOXICATION look up translate image
- according to legal definition, this condition occurs when one has a blood alcohol level of 0.10 or more
- ALGORITHM look up translate image
- A step-by-step procedure that always provides the right answer for a particular type of problem.
- ALL-OR-NONE LAW look up translate image
- The rule that the size of the action potential is unaffected by increases in the intensity of stimulation beyond the threshold level.
- ALL-OR-NONE PRINCIPLE look up translate image
- the principle that a neuron's action potential is triggered at full strength or not at all, it does not diminish in intensity as it travels down the neuron
- ALLERGENS look up translate image
- substances, such as pollen, household dust, tobacco smoke, fabric softener, and perfume, that trigger allergic responses
- ALTERED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS look up translate image
- a condition r state that is considered outside the realm of normal consciousness, resulting from any number of different conditions, such as sensory deprivation or overstimulation, hypnosis, meditation, or the use of psychoactive drugs
- ALTRUISM look up translate image
- Prosocial behaviors a person carries out without considering his or her own safety or interests.
- ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE look up translate image
- A chronic organic brain syndrome characterized by gradual loss of memory, decline in intellectual ability, and deterioration of personality.
- AMACRINE CELLS look up translate image
- Cells that integrate information across the retina; rather than sending signals toward the brain, amacrine cells link bipolar cells to other bipolar cells and ganglion cells to other ganglion cells.
- AMBIGUITY look up translate image
- A perceptual object that may have more than "one interpretation.
- AMNESIA look up translate image
- A failure of memory caused by physical injury, disease, drug use, or psychological trauma.
- AMNIOCENTESIS look up translate image
- a medical technique used after the sixteenth week of pregnancy whereby a sample of amniotic fluid is drawn from the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus, an analysis of the fluid enables doctors to determine whether the fetus has certain chromosomal abnormalities
- AMPHETAMINES look up translate image
- drugs that stimulate the CNS putting the body into a hyperenergized state, amphetamines block the reuptake of dopamine into nerve cells while directly causing the release of dopamine from the cells
- AMPLITUDE look up translate image
- one of the basic elements of sound, referring to the strength of the wave, graphically represented as the height of the crest of the wave
- AMYGDALA look up translate image
- The part of the limbic system that controls emotion, aggression, and the formation of emotional memory.
- ANAL STAGE look up translate image
- according to Freud, the second stage of childhood development, which occurs between one to three years of age, in which psychic energy becomes focused on anal activities, such as defecation
- ANALGESICS look up translate image
- drugs that reduce physical pain
- ANALOGICAL REASONING look up translate image
- reasoning by analogy, by inferring that if who or more things agree with one another in some respect, they will agree in others
- ANALYTIC INTELLIGENCE look up translate image
- the knowledge and skills that enable us to think critically and analytically about components of a problem, and to compare and evaluate alternatives
- ANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY look up translate image
- A branch of psychology that views the person as a constellation of compensatory internal forces in a dynamic balance.
- ANCHORING HEURISTIC look up translate image
- An insufficient adjustment up or down from an original starting value when judging the probable value of some event or outcome.
- ANGER look up translate image
- an emotion characterized by extreme or passionate displeasure and often antagonism
- ANIMAL COGNITION look up translate image
- The cognitive capabilities of nonhuman animals; researchers trace the development of cognitive capabilities across species and the continuity of capabilities from nonhuman to human animals.
- ANOREXIA NERVOSA look up translate image
- An eating disorder in which an individual weighs less than 85 percent of her or his expected weight but still controls eating because of a self-perception of obesity.
- ANOSMIA look up translate image
- impairment in the sense of smell
- ANTAGONISTS look up translate image
- a group of psychoactive drugs that prevent, inhibit, or block neurotransmitters, curare and other paralyzing drugs are examples
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