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- AGE-ADJUSTED MORTALITY RATE look up translate image
- A mortality rate statistically modified to eliminate the effect of different age distributions in the different populations.
- AGE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY RATE look up translate image
- A mortality rate limited to a particular age group. The numerator is the number of deaths in that age group; the denominator is the number of persons in that age group in the population.
- AGENT look up translate image
- A factor, such as a microorganism, chemical substance, or form of radiation, whose presence, excessive presence, or (in deficiency diseases) relative absence is essential for the occurrence of a disease.
- ANALYTIC EPIDEMIOLOGY look up translate image
- The aspect of epidemiology concerned with the search for health-related causes and effects. Uses comparison groups, which provide baseline data, to quantify the association between exposures and outcomes, and test hypotheses about causal relationships.
- ANALYTIC STUDY look up translate image
- A comparative study intended to identify and quantify associations, test hypotheses, and identify causes. Two common types are cohort study and case-control study.
- APPLIED EPIDEMIOLOGY look up translate image
- The application or practice of epidemiology to address public health issues.
- ASSOCIATION look up translate image
- Statistical relationship between two or more events, characteristics, or other variables.
- ATTACK RATE look up translate image
- A variant of an incident rate, applied to a narrowly defined population observed for a limited period of time, such as during an epidemic.
- ATTRIBUTABLE PROPORTION look up translate image
- A measure of the public health impact of a causative factor; proportion of a disease in a group that is exposed to a particular factor which can be attributed to their exposure to that factor.
- BAR CHART look up translate image
- A visual display of the size of the different categories of a variable. Each category or value of the variable is represented by a bar.
- BIAS look up translate image
- Deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such systematic deviation. Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth.
- BIOLOGIC TRANSMISSION look up translate image
- The indirect vector-borne transmission of an infectious agent in which the agent undergoes biologic changes within the vector before being transmitted to a new host.
- BOX PLOT look up translate image
- A visual display that summarizes data using a “box and whiskers” format to show the minimum and maximum values (ends of the whiskers), interquartile range (length of the box), and median (line through the box).
- CARRIER look up translate image
- A person or animal without apparent disease who harbors a specific infectious agent and is capable of transmitting the agent to others. The carrier state may occur in an individual with an infection that is inapparent throughout its course (known as asymptomatic carrier), or during the incubation period, convalescence, and postconvalescence of an individual with a clinically recognizable disease. The carrier state may be of short or long duration (transient carrier or chronic carrier).
- CASE look up translate image
- In epidemiology, a countable instance in the population or study group of a particular disease, health disorder, or condition under investigation. Sometimes, an individual with the particular disease.
- CASE DEFINITION look up translate image
- A set of standard criteria for deciding whether a person has a particular disease or health-related condition, by specifying clinical criteria and limitations on time, place, and person.
- CASE-CONTROL STUDY look up translate image
- A type of observational analytic study. Enrollment into the study is based on presence (“case”) or absence (“control”) of disease. Characteristics such as previous exposure are then compared between cases and controls.
- CASE-FATALITY RATE look up translate image
- The proportion of persons with a particular condition (cases) who die from that condition. The denominator is the number of incident cases; the numerator is the number of cause-specific deaths among those cases.
- CAUSE OF DISEASE look up translate image
- A factor (characteristic, behavior, event, etc.) that directly influences the occurrence of disease. A reduction of the factor in the population should lead to a reduction in the occurrence of disease.
- CAUSE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY RATE look up translate image
- The mortality rate from a specified cause for a population. The numerator is the number of deaths attributed to a specific cause during a specified time interval; the denominator is the size of the population at the midpoint of the time interval.
- CENSUS look up translate image
- The enumeration of an entire population, usually with details being recorded on residence, age, sex, occupation, ethnic group, marital status, birth history, and relationship to head of household.
- CHAIN OF INFECTION look up translate image
- A process that begins when an agent leaves its reservoir or host through a portal of exit, and is conveyed by some mode of transmission, then enters through an appropriate portal of entry to infect a susceptible host.
- CLASS INTERVAL look up translate image
- A span of values of a continuous variable which are grouped into a single category for a frequency distribution of that variable.
- CLUSTER look up translate image
- An aggregation of cases of a disease or other health-related condition, particularly cancer and birth defects, which are closely grouped in time and place. The number of cases may or may not exceed the expected number; frequently the expected number is not known.
- COHORT look up translate image
- A well-defined group of people who have had a common experience or exposure, who are then followed up for the incidence of new diseases or events, as in a cohort or prospective study. A group of people born during a particular period or year is called a birth cohort.
- COHORT STUDY look up translate image
- A type of observational analytic study. Enrollment into the study is based on exposure characteristics or membership in a group. Disease, death, or other health-related outcomes are then ascertained and compared.
- COMMON SOURCE OUTBREAK look up translate image
- An outbreak that results from a group of persons being exposed to a common noxious influence, such as an infectious agent or toxin. If the group is exposed over a relatively brief period of time, so that all cases occur within one incubation period, then the common source outbreak is further classified as a point source outbreak. In some common source outbreaks, persons may be exposed over a period of days, weeks, or longer, with the exposure being either intermittent or continuous.
- CONFIDENCE INTERVAL look up translate image
- A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable. The specified probability is called the confidence level, and the end points of the confidence interval are called the confidence limits.
- CONFIDENCE LIMIT look up translate image
- The minimum or maximum value of a confidence interval.
- CONTACT look up translate image
- Exposure to a source of an infection, or a person so exposed.
- CONTAGIOUS look up translate image
- Capable of being transmitted from one person to another by contact or close proximity.
- CONTINGENCY TABLE look up translate image
- A two-variable table with cross-tabulated data.
- CONTROL look up translate image
- In a case-control study, comparison group of persons without disease.
- CRUDE MORTALITY RATE look up translate image
- The mortality rate from all causes of death for a population.
- CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY look up translate image
- In a frequency distribution, the number or proportion of cases or events with a particular value or in a particular class interval, plus the total number or proportion of cases or events with smaller values of the variable.
- CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY CURVE look up translate image
- A plot of the cumulative frequency rather than the actual frequency for each class interval of a variable. This type of graph is useful for identifying medians, quartiles, and other percentiles.
- DEATH-TO-CASE RATIO look up translate image
- The number of deaths attributed to a particular disease during a specified time period divided by the number of new cases of that disease identified during the same time period.
- DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION look up translate image
- The person: characteristics—age, sex, race, and occupation—of descriptive epidemiology used to characterize the populations at risk.
- DENOMINATOR look up translate image
- The lower portion of a fraction used to calculate a rate or ratio. In a rate, the denominator is usually the population (or population experience, as in person-years, etc.) at risk.
- DEPENDENT VARIABLE look up translate image
- In a statistical analysis, the outcome variable(s) or the variable(s) whose values are a function of other variable(s) (called independent variable(s) in the relationship under study).
- DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY look up translate image
- The aspect of epidemiology concerned with organizing and summarizing health-related data according to time, place, and person.
- DETERMINANT look up translate image
- Any factor, whether event, characteristic, or other definable entity, that brings about change in a health condition, or in other defined characteristics.
- DIRECT TRANSMISSION look up translate image
- The immediate transfer of an agent from a reservoir to a susceptible host by direct contact or droplet spread.
- DISTRIBUTION look up translate image
- In epidemiology, the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics and events in a population. In statistics, the observed or theoretical frequency of values of a variable.
- DOT PLOT look up translate image
- A visual display of the actual data points of a noncontinuous variable.
- DROPLET NUCLEI look up translate image
- The residue of dried droplets that may remain suspended in the air for long periods, may be blown over great distances, and are easily inhaled into the lungs and exhaled.
- DROPLET SPREAD look up translate image
- The direct transmission of an infectious agent from a reservoir to a susceptible host by spray with relatively large, short-ranged aerosols produced by sneezing, coughing, or talking.
- ENDEMIC DISEASE look up translate image
- The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area or population group; may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease within such area or group.
- ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR look up translate image
- An extrinsic factor (geology, climate, insects, sanitation, health services, etc.) which affects the agent and the opportunity for exposure.
- EPIDEMIC look up translate image
- The occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a given area or among a specific group of people over a particular period of time.
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