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ARCO  look up translate image
Italian for bow. Written in after passages of pizzicato (plucked) notes. Means to return to playing with the bow.
ARPEGGIO  look up translate image
a musical element of a few notes made by playing the notes of a chord separately rather than simultaneously. Hence the verb "arpeggiate."
ARTICULATION  look up translate image
Shape of a note or phrase. Basically three marks (and combinations thereof). The dot ( . ) which is staccato (short); the line ( - ) which is legato (smooth); and the accent ( > ) which is like a little punch at the beginning of a note. (Accent marks are the chevron pointing to the right.) Sometimes in an otherwise more or less staccato passage, the articulation line ( - ) is meant to give the note full length, where it's equivalent to tenuto. Sometimes, in combination with a slur, it means the...(more)
BAR  look up translate image
measure; small grouping of musical beats. In musical notation, vertical lines on the staff enclose a bar.
BARIOLAGE  look up translate image
A passage, often in Bach but in Brahms and elsewhere, where the fingers are held down over several strings and the bow oscillates between the several strings. The Bach E Major Partita is a notorious example. Very impressive sounding; not so hard once you get the trick of it.

  • artbario.mp3 [714.28 KB]
  • BARTK PIZZ  look up translate image
    Also called snap pizz. Right hand pulls the string away from the fingerboard and releases, causing a snapping sound.
    BEAT  look up translate image
    metrical or rhythmic stress, groupings of which constitute the meter or "time" of music.
    BOUNCING BOW  look up translate image
    This is not just spiccato, which is an off-the-string, at-the-sounding-point technique of very small up and down bows, originating from the wrist, but a host of other definitions with very fine distinctions as to their meanings. {Worthy of further study are: saltando, saltante, saltato, saltellato, saltellando, sautell.}
    BOWING  look up translate image
    the technique of handling the bow or pattern of bowstrokes used when playing a stringed instrument.
    BOWSTROKE  look up translate image
    the articulation of the bow in a single direction to play a note or group of notes; often shortened to "stroke."
    BREAKDOWNS  look up translate image
    instrumental tunes in duple meter (2/4 or 4/4) at a quick dance speed. This general term in the American South is roughly equivalent to the term "reel" elsewhere in the English-speaking world. But it does not imply a particular type of dance; a "breakdown" tune may be used for square dances, longways dances, or other group dances, as well as for solo fancy dancing.
    CADENCE  look up translate image
    the final notes of a strain in a tune, normally resolving on the tonic.
    CHORD  look up translate image
    a group of three or more musical tones sounded together.
    CHROMATIC  look up translate image
    a term referring to the use of all the half-tones in a scale.
    CIRCULAR  look up translate image
    a term for tunes that do not resolve at the tonic at the end of a strain but move continuously into the next strain.
    COL LEGNO  look up translate image
    Passage where the sound is produced by striking the wood of the bow against the string(s). One should not use ones best bow in this type of passage, particularly if the bow is expensive.
    COMPASS  look up translate image
    the range of pitches between a tune's lowest and highest notes, expressed here as the number of notes in the diatonic scale. Thus a tune with the range of an octave would have a compass of 7.
    CON SORDINO  look up translate image
    With mute. Passages with mute end with the phrase "senza sordino" which means to remove the mute. There are several varieties of violin mute. One is a "Sihon" or slide-on mute, often used by students, which slides up upon the bridge, from between the end of the tailpiece and the bridge. Costs about $2-$3US. There is the Tourte mute, which also can hang behind the bridge in that area. There is a Heifetz mute, which clips on rather snugly and has to be put on by hand. There is also the heavy practice mute of silver or gold, which is not used in orchestral studies, but to practice without disturbing neighbors or roommates.

  • Sihon.jpg [4.92 KB]
  • heavypracticemute.jpg [7.21 KB]
  • Tourtemutesmall.jpg [4.40 KB]
  • CONTACT POINT  look up translate image
    Also called sounding point, the explicit part of the bow hair which touches the string. In Suzuki parlance, related to the "Kreisler Highway," or the effort to play perfectly parallel between the end of the fingerboard and the bridge at the optimal spot which will produce the best sound.
    DTACH  look up translate image
    Impossible to define this, as there are so many varieties. Basically, up and down; a change of bowing direction with some articulation. Does not necessarily mean staccato (though sometimes defined as such); can be heavily accented or not
    DIATONIC  look up translate image
    a term referring to the standard seven-tone scale.
    DOMINANT  look up translate image
    the fifth degree of the diatonic scale, measured upward from the tonic.
    DOUBLE STOP  look up translate image
    two musical tones noted together. On the fiddle, a double stop is technically two notes created by using fingers simultaneously on two strings, but the term is sometimes used when one or both of the notes are open strings.
    DOWN BOW  look up translate image
    If the bow is on the sounding point in the middle of the bow, if you pull down toward the right, that is a down bow. Up bow is the opposite.
    DRONE  look up translate image
    a single tone sounded continuously along with other melodic tones. On the fiddle, the term is sometimes used to refer to the practice of sounding open strings simultaneously with adjacent strings on which the melody is being played.
    DUPLE  look up translate image
    occurring in groups of two; used to refer to rhythmic patterns such as 2/4 or 4/4.
    FLAUTANDO  look up translate image
    Flute-like sound produced by deliberately playing over the fingerboard.
    FROG  look up translate image
    the small apparatus attached to the fiddle bow stick near its base, to which the hairs of the bow are attached.
    GENRE  look up translate image
    an artistic category characterized by a particular style, form, or content. Most genres of instrumental music are also genres for dancing or marching.
    HARMONICS  look up translate image
    Bell-like tones created by lightly touching the string with the flat part of the left finger, which breaks the string into partials. The first harmonic learned by students is the one mid-way between the nut and the bridge, at about an inch or so above (towards the bridge) where the body of the violin begins. Indicated by a 4 and a 0 fingering. Used by composers for affect.
    INSTRUMENTALS  look up translate image
    tunes designed for and performed on a musical instrument without use of the voice.
    JET  look up translate image
    Individually produced or "thrown" series of notes, produced at the same part of the bow.
    KEY  look up translate image
    the tonality of a scale; the organization of the pitches of a piece of music around a tonal center, or tonic.
    LEFT HAND PIZZICATO  look up translate image
    pizzicato created by a sharp plucking of the string with the violin (left) hand. Common in Paganini.
    LEGATO  look up translate image
    Smooth, tied together. May be indicated by a slur mark.
    MARCATO  look up translate image
    Unclear term. Accentuated in some fashion, as dtach or martel.
    MARTEL  look up translate image
    Staccato (short) with heavy accent.
    MEASURE  look up translate image
    bar; pattern of musical beats. In musical notation, vertical lines on the staff enclose a measure.
    MELODY  look up translate image
    tune; for instrumental music, an arrangement of notes typically comprising at least two strains, each of which is repeated.
    METER  look up translate image
    "time" in music; a pattern of regularly recurring rhythmic pulses or beats, whether heard or imagined.
    NOTATION  look up translate image
    transcription; the system of writing used to represent music.
    NOTE  look up translate image
    a single tone, the smallest musical unit in a melody or tune. In notation, a note is the symbol indicating the duration and pitch of a musical sound by its shape and position on the staff.
    NUT  look up translate image
    the screw at the base of the fiddle bow stick that tightens the bow hairs.
    PHRASE  look up translate image
    a short musical expression, several of which comprise an entire tune or melody. The phrase structure provides insight into the shape, aesthetics, and psychodynamics of the tune. The fiddle tunes in this collection typically have two strains, each of which is composed of four phrases or eight subphrases. In the Musical Features section of the bibliographic record for each tune, phrases are indicated by capital letters and subphrases are in parentheses in lowercase letters. Thus a phrase structure...(more)
    PITCH  look up translate image
    the highness or lowness of sound or intonation; the frequency of sound waves producing a sound. Thus an A-string, if tuned to the current standard for the pitch of A, would vibrate at a pitch with the frequency of 440 cycles per second.
    PIZZICATO  look up translate image
    Usually written as "pizz" in the parts, and "arco" when the pizz section is meant to end. Plucking the string with the right hand. Technique may be done in several ways with respect to the holding of the bow in the right hand: (a) for very quick notes in pizz, the right index finger may be extended, and the pizz done without much changing the shape of the bow hold; (b) the bow may be grasped by the fist and the thumb balanced against the corner of the fingerboard with the index finger pizzing; and...(more)
    PONTICELLO  look up translate image
    Orchestral technique of playing on the bridge (sul ponticello). "Dietro il ponticello" is playing behind the bridge. These and much more unorthodox techniques may be found in Pendereckis "Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima." End of ponticello passage may be indicated by "ordinario," often written as "ord."
    PORTAMENTO  look up translate image
    An audible slide from one position to the next. As modern stringed instrument technique developed in the later part of the 20th century, players tended to be less and less "smaltzy," and portamento used more carefully. But in the performances of Yo-Yo Ma (for example) you will be surprised to discover a lot of portamenti, but they do not sound syrupy at all. This is a matter of "taste," that longed for but often hard to define characteristic of great string playing.
    RENDITION  look up translate image
    the pattern in which strains are arranged within a particular performance of a tune. Most, but not all, strains in this collection are repeated, and there may be variation from performance to performance in whether a strain is repeated. In the Musical Features section of the bibliographic record for each tune, the strains are numbered (1, 2, etc.), and "r" indicates that the strain is repeated.
    RHYTHM  look up translate image
    the pattern of musical movement through time.
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    Violin terms
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    Created by admin
    Created on 2011-05-04 18:28:51
    Number of terms 69
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